Computer Chess Pioneers
by Bill Wall

Mikko Aarnos is a Finnish software developer and computer chess and games programmer. In 2014, he authored the UCI-compatible open source bitboard chess engine called Hakkapeliitta, written in C++ with support for Syzygy tablebases. Version 3.0 is rated around 2900.

Dr. Paul W. Abrahams is an American mathematician, computer scientist, and past president of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). In 1957, he contributed to the development of the Kotok-McCarthy chess program at MIT, providing many of the chess routines.

Anthony Adam was an early game programmer. In the early 1980s he wrote the chess programs ZX Spectrum Chess (Master Chess) and Spectrum 48K Death Chess 5000, manufactured by Artic Computing Ltd.

Dr. Georgy Maximovich Adelson-Velsky (1922-2014), born in Samara, was a Soviet and Israeli mathematician and computer scientist.  Beginning in 1963, he headed the development of a computer chess program at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow. His innovations included the first use of bitboards in computer chess. The program defeated Kotok-McCarthy program in the first chess match between computer programs in 1966. It evolved into Kaissa, the first world computer chess champion.

Andre Adrian is a German senior engineer. He was the first to port the Sargon Z80 assembly program by the Spracklens to run under the CP/M operating system. He also worked on the AVR-Max and the Micro-Max. Micro-Max was ported for an Atmel-ATmega88 Microcontroller by Adrian.

Dr. Thomas Dybdahl Ahle is a Danish computer scientist and software developer. He is the owner and primary developer of PyChess, a chess client and engine for the Linux desktop and windows. He is the author of the chess engine Sunfish, written in 111 lines of Python code. He is a co-founder of Supwiz.

John Aker is an American electrical engineer. In 1980, he started programming chess. He programmed Boris 2.5 based on Sargon 2.5. He was the designer of the Chafitz/Applied Concepts Modular Game System (Great Game Machine).

Dr. Selim Akl (1978- ) is a professor and Director of the School of Computing at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. He is the creator of Quantum Chess, a variant of the chess game, using the weird properties of quantum physics. The purpose of Quantum Chess is not to make the game more difficult; rather, by adding the unpredictability of quantum physics to chess, humans and computers are put on a level playing field, as they both face the same difficulties posed by the weirdness of the quantum.

Fauzi Akram-Dabat (1985- ) is a computer chess aficionado from Jordan who created strong opening books for different GUIS and formats.

Mike Alexander is an American computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. He was a co-author of the chess program CHAOS white at the University of Michigan. It was one of the strongest chess programs of the late 1970s and early 1980s, using a unique, knowledge-based and selective best-first, iterative widening approach, keeping the search tree in memory.

Mohammed Nasir Ali is a Pakistani computer engineer. His research thesis was on "heuristic search algorithms in parallel environment" as applied to the problem of chess. He was the project manager of the Hydra cluster chess computer project from 2004 to 2008. He co-founded Pal Computer System in Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Richard Allbert is a British computer chess programmer. He is the author of the Lime (released in 2005) and Jabba chess engines (written in 2009), written in C++, that runs under Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.

Peter Aloysius-Harjanto is an Indonesian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2004, he developed the free WinBoard chess engine Petir.

Boris Alterman (1970- ) is an Israeli grandmaster (1992). He was an advisor and opening book author of the JUNIOR chess program.

Rasmus Althoff is a German electrical engineer. In 2016, he designed a free and open source dedicated chess computer called CT800 running open source software.

Leen Ammeraal is a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist. In 2000, he developed Queen, a WinBoard and UCI-compliant chess program. He is also the author of Senior Chess.

Dr. Thomas Anantharaman is a computer statistician. While at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1985 to 1990, along with Feng-hsiung Hsu and Murray Campbell, he developed ChipTest. It was the predecessor of Deep Thought, which evolved into Deep Blue. ChipTest was based on a special VLSI-technology move generator chip, controlled by a Sun-3/160 workstation. It was capable of searching 50,000 moves per second. This work led to his 1990 PhD Dissertation: "A Statistical Study of Selective Min-Max Search in Computer Chess.”

Robert Ancell is an Australian software engineer. He was the primary author and initial maintainer of the glChess and GNOME Chess source chess GUIs, released in 2018.

International Master Frank Anderson (1928-1980) was a computer engineer at the University of Toronto. In 1959, he, along with Bob Cody, wrote a chess program that analyzed simple pawn endings. When the program was demonstrated at the Canadian Conference of Scientists it played against more than 50 different opponents, each of whom could choose his own starting position, given the small number of pawns. In each case the program played perfectly.  Their first version could cope with more than 180,000 different positions, a figure that was increased in subsequent versions of the program. In each case the program played perfectly. Unfortunately, the strategy that enabled these endings to be programmed successfully was never documented and the programmers no longer have any written record of it, nor are they able to remember it.

Dr. Rafael Andrist is a Swiss computer scientist and mathematician. He is the author of the chess program WILHELM, which was supported from 2003 to 2006. It had its own GUI running under windows with a focus on endgame research. The chess engine was written in C and the GUI was written in Visual Basic.

Volker Annuss is a German computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Hermann (which can play Chess960) and Arminius. In 1986, he wrote a chess program called Deep Thought for Atari ST.

Vladimir Arlazarov is a Russian computer scientist. In 1965, he co-developed the ITEP Chess Program and in 1971, he co-developed the chess program KAISSA, which won the first World Computer Chess Championship in 1974.

Roman Antonczyk is an Austrian computer scientist. In 1996, he wrote the chess program YChess, which ran on 386 PCs with VGA or SVGA graphics cards.

Ioannis Antonoglou is a Greek computer scientist and software engineer at Google DeepMind since 2012. He was involved in the AlphaZero projects that achieved a superhuman level of play in chess.

Dr. Lyudmil Antonov is a Bulgarian statistician. He contributed to the Stockfish project to create a UCI compatible open source chess engine. He is the author of asmFish and fishtest.

Benny Antonsson is a Swedish computer chess programmer. He is the author of the WinBoard compliant chess programs Embracer, which he wrote in 1999, and Alarm (formerly Deamon), which he wrote in 2001.

Daniel Anulliero is a French chess programmer. He began chess programming on a Macintosh and wrote his first chess program, called BISHOP, in Basic. He later ported it to a PC sing QuckBASIC 4.5. He later wrote the chess engines JARS, Yoda, and ISA.

Edsel Apostol (1984- ) is a Filipino software engineer. In 2007, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Twisted Logic. In 2010, he co-wrote the chess engine Hannibal with Sam Hamilton.

Hans-Jurgen Appelrath (1952-2016) was a German mathematician and computer scientist. In 1973, while at the University of Dortmund, he was a member of a project team that developed the mainframe chess program Proscha, written in PL/I for the IBM 370.

Timothy Arbuckle is an American computer engineer and programmer. In 1957, he was a member of the team developing the Bernstein Chess Program for the IBM 704.

Oleg Arenz is a German computer scientist. In 2012, he wrote the chess engine MCC, based on Stockfish. His Bachelor’s thesis was on the Monte-Carlo Tree Search, a Best-First search algorithm, in the game of chess.

Vladimir Arlazarov is a Russian mathematician and computer scientist. In 1965, he co-developed the ITEP Chess Program at the Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics.

Dr. George Arnold is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. He, along with Monty Newborn, developed a chess program called Ostrich in 1971. It ran on a Digital Computer Laboratory at Columbia University.

Robert Arnstein is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. In 1977, he developed 8080 Chess, a chess program for the S-100 bus microcomputers. It was the first microcomputer to participate in an ACM computer chess tournament in 1977.

Stan Arts is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 2002, he developed Stan’s Chess. This later evolved into Neurosis. He also wrote the chess engine Nemeton.

Larry Atkin is an American computer scientist and form chess programmer. While a student at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, he, along with Keith Gorlen, wrote a chess program called CHESS 1.0 in 1968. It ran on a CDC 6400 mainframe. In 1973, Atkin, along with David Slate, wrote a new program, Chess 4.0, rather than modifying the Chess 3.x series. A library of 5,000 opening positions was added. In 1976, Atkin and Slate added a transposition table for Chess 4.5. Its rating was under 1600, or Class C level. After 10 years of development, chess programs gained less than 200 points. At that rate, it would take another 60 years before a computer could challenge the world chess champion. But in just a few years, Chess 4.9 would be playing at the Expert level. In 1980, Atkin, along with William Blanchard, created NUCHESS. Atkin went to Applied Concepts and worked on dedicated chess computers such as the Great Game Machine and the Chafitz modular game system.

Ron Atkin (1926- ) was a British mathematician. In the early 1970s, introduced Q-analysis, a mathematical framework to describe and analyze set systems, to chess. It was a method to mathematically evaluate chess positions in computer programs, mostly at the positional level rather than the tactical level.

Steven Atkinson, is an Australian hobby programmer. In 2010, he wrote a chess GUI called Scid vs. PC, written in Tcl/Tk, which acts as a front end of a database for the Shane Hudson’s Chess Information Database (SCID).

Peter Auge is a German toy manufacturer. He, along with Erich Winkler, formed Novag Industries Ltd in 1978. Auge was manufacturer of dedicated chess computers from 1978 until 2009 when Novag was sold to Solar Wide Industrial Ltd.

Guillermo Baches-Garcia is a computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2004, he developed the chess program FIBChess, written in Java.

Ivan Bacigal is an American computer chess programmer. In the 1990s, he developed the computer chess program Waxman, also known as Pocket Chess for Windows.

Boris Baczynskyj (1945-2008) worked for Hayden Software on the Sargon II manual, and was affiliated with Fidelity International as a chess advisor. He was responsible for Fidleity’s opening book. He co-authored, with David Welsh, Computer Chess II.

Dr. Dmitry Badziahin is a Belarusian mathematician. In 2008, he wrote the chess utility Kvetka, used to view and analyze chess games and positions under Windows.

Mikael Baeckman is a Swedish computer chess programmer. In 2003, he created the WinBoard chess engine Chepia.

Douglas Bagnall is a New Zealand computer programmer. In 2002, he wrote the open source chess engine p4wn, written in JavaScript.

Dr. Michael Bain is an Australian computer scientist. His PhD thesis was titled Learning Logical Exceptions in Chess. His research interests include machine learning and inductive logic programming.

Alan Baisley was a computer scientist. As a student at MIT in the 1960s, he was the tester and book-author of the Greenblatt Chess Program (MacHack VI). In 1974, he implemented Tech 2 in assembly language on a PDP-10.

Dr. Miguel Ballicora is a biochemist and chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the chess engine Gaviota. He is also the author of Ordo, a chess program to calculate ratings of individual chess engines.

Dr. Amir Ban is an Israeli computer scientist. In 1996, he was the primary author of Junior, and its multiprocessor version, Deep Junior, in 2004.

Ankan Banerjee is an Indian computer scientist. In 2016. He developed the experimental chess engine Paladin, written in C++.

Graham Banks is a New Zealand computer chess aficionado and tester of chess programs. He co-founded the Computer Chess Rating Lists (CCRL) group.

Walter Bannerman is a Swiss computer chess programmer. In 1993, he developed the chess engine Ananse.

Johan Van Barel is a Belgian computer chess programmer. In 1997, he developed Psion Chess, a commercial chess program for the 8088-compatible computer.

Michael Barenfeld is an American psychologist and computer scientist. In the late 1960s, he developed the experimental chess program Perceiver, which duplicated the eye movements of a chess expert.

Craig Barnes is an American computer scientist. In 1973, he co-authored Chess while an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1982 until 1995, he was senior programmer for Julio Kaplan’s Heuristic Software, an American chess and AI game developing company.

David J. Barnes is a British computer scientist. He is the author of the PGN processing tool, pgn-extract.

Christian Barreteau is a French electrical engineer and chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the chess engine AnMon, one of the first engines which supported the WinBoard protocol.

Nils Barricelli (1912-1993) was a Norwegian-Italian mathematician. He developed his chess program called FREEDOM, which took last place in the First World Computer Chess Championship in Stockholm in 1974.

Wilhelm Barth is an Austrian computer scientist. In 1996, he wrote the chess program Endspiel.

Reid Barton is an American mathematician at Harvard University. While at MIT in 1999, he contributed to the Cilkchess computer chess program, a massive parallel chess program.

Ingo Bauer is a German chess computer tester and operator. He maintains the IPON rating list.

Martin Bauer is a German software developer and computer chess programmer. He is the author of DelphiMax, a UCI-compliant chess engine.

Dr. Ira Baxter, from Software Dynamics developed a chess program called SD Chess in 1977. It was written in Basic on a 6800-microcomputer using a minimax tree look-ahead scheme.

Jonathan Baxter is an Australian computer scientist. In 1997, he co-authored with Lex Weaver the Temporal Difference learning chess program KnightCap. In 1999, he wrote TDChess.

George Baylor was a professor of psychology. In 1965, while a student at Carnegie-Mellon University, he wrote a mating combinations program called Mater.

Dr. Don Beal is a British computer scientist and computer games researcher. He researched and published various computer chess-related topics. He authored several chess programs such as Delicate Brute and BCP.

Dr. Aaron Becker is an American mathematician, computer scientist, and software engineer. In 2009, he developed the chess engine Daydreamer, a UCI-compliant open source chess engine.

Dr. Stephen F. Becker is an American physicist and attorney. In 1975, he, along with Ted Anderson, wrote a chess program called SORTIE in 1975.

Alvaro Beque is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 1999, along with Jose Manuel Moran, he co-wrote the chess program Ruy Lopez.

Gerlach van Beinum is a Dutch computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. In the early 1980s, he was a member of a team that created the Pion chess program. It was written in C and had an opening book of 4,000 positions.

Wieland Belka is a computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Eichhoernchen and the open source chess engine Brainless.

Alex Bell was a British scientist at the Atlas Computer Laboratory in Chilton, England. In 1967, he wrote a chess program called ATLAS. In 1970, Alex G. Bell published an article called, "How to Program a Computer to Play Legal Chess."

John T. Bell is an American businessman and programmer. In 1992, he, along with David Hendricks, developed EdChess, a shareware chess program for the IBM PC. Bell worked on the interface and designed the chessboard using the IBM special character set.

Marco Belli is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2010, he developed the chess engine Vajolet, and, later, Vajolet 2.

Dr. Richard Bellman (1920-1984) was an applied mathematician at the RAND Corporation. In 1965, he published an article called "On the application of dynamic programming to the determination of optimal play in chess and checkers." A great deal of effort was expended about the use of digital computers to play chess or checkers. The paper tried to show how the theory of dynamic programming could be used to determine optimal play in the great majority of pawn-king end games in chess, with computers currently available, and to determine the optimal play for the entire game of checkers. He proposed the creation of a database to solve chess endgames using retrograde analysis. Instead of analyzing forward from the position currently on the board, the database would analyze backward from positions where one player is checkmated or stalemated.

Dr. Steven Bellovin is an American computer scientist. In 1970, he co-authored the chess program CCCP (Columbia Computer Chess Program).

Martin Belsky is an American computer scientist and computer programmer. In 1957, he was a member of the team that developed a chess playing program (the Bernstein program) for the IBM 704.

Dr. Ruben Carlo Benante is a Brazilian computer scientist. In 2007, he developed Xadreco, an open source chess engine.

Juan Benitez-Sanchez is a Spanish software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1993, he developed the chess engine Betsabe.

Ryan Benitez is an American computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2005, he developed the chess engine RTG and Gambit Fruit.

Jaime Benito is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 2004, he developed the chess engine Ayito.

Joel Benjamin (1964- ) was the winner of the National Elementary (1976), Junior High School (1978), and High School Championships (1980-81), U.S. Junior Championship (1980, 1982), U.S. Open Championship (1985), and U.S. Championship (1987, 1997). He was the editor of Chess Chow, a monthly chess magazine. He defeated his first master at age 11 and was the first 11-year old U.S. Expert. At 13 years and 3 months, he broke Bobby Fischer’s record (13 years, 5 months) for becoming the youngest U.S. master up to that time. He was the youngest Manhattan Chess Club champion at 14, and became a Grandmaster in 1986. He assisted the IBM DEEP BLUE team that helped defeat Garry Kasparov in the DEEP BLUE computer vs. Kasparov chess match in April 1997.

Alvaro Benlloch is a former computer chess programmer and advisor. In 1993, he co-authored the chess engine Killer.

Shawn Benn is an American computer scientist and software engineer. In 1993, he recalibrated the Bratko-Kopec (B-K) Test using six commercial chess programs. The B-K test was a published means of assessment of chess-playing programs.

Adam Berent is a Canadian computer programmer. He developed the chess engine ChessBin.com with C# source code and explanation supplied.

Josu Bergara-Ede is a Spanish programmer. He developed a portable dedicated chess system called Gavon.

John Bergbom is a Swedish computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2004, he developed an open source chess engine called Amundsen.

Ard van Bergen is a Dutch physicist and former computer chess programmer. In 1981, he developed the chess program PK80/83. In 1986, he developed the chess program SChess.

Moritz Berger is a German computer scientist. In 1997, he was one of the founders of the Computer Chess Club (CCC), a moderated computer chess forum.

Peter Berger is a German computer chess expert. He is the opening book author of Bringer and Crafty.

Dr. Elwyn Berlekam (1940- ) is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. In 1960, while an undergraduate at MIT, he was a member of the chess group that worked on chessplaying routines for the IBM 704 computer. For a while, he joined Alan Kotok and others to build the Kotok-McCarthy chess program for the IBM 7090.

Dr. Hans Berliner (1929-2017) was a computer scientist specializing in Artificial Intelligence and winner of the 5th world correspondence championship (1965-68). In 1969, he developed his first chess program at Carnegie-Mellon University called J. Biit. J Biit (Just Because It Is There). It was written in PL/I and ran on a DEC PDP-10 computer at Carnegie Mellon University. He also got it running on an IBM 360/91 mainframe computer at Columbia University. J. Biit was one of the first chess programs operated through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Berliner was the first U.S. correspondence Grandmaster. He helped develop the chess machine/program called Hitech, one of the strongest chess machines in the world. It was the first computer program to become a US Chess Federation Senior Master. In 1974, Berliner wrote a chess program as part of his Ph.D. dissertation (“Chess Computers as Problem Solving”) at Carnegie-Mellon University. In 1979, he developed a backgammon-playing computer program that defeated the reigning world backgammon champion.  In 1997, Berliner was awarded the $100,000 Fredkin Prize to the inventors of the Deep Blue chess machine for being the first program to beat a reigning world chess champion. Berliner was the administrator of the Fredkin Foundation grant.

Victor Berman is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. He was involved in the development of CHAOS in the 1960s.

Erik Bernhardsson is a Swedish computer scientist. In 2014, he developed Deep Pink, an open source chess engine written in Python.

Alex Bernstein was a IBM employee who created the first complete chess program at IBM in 1957. With his colleagues Michael de V. Roberts, Timothy Arbuckle and Martin Belsky, Bernstein created a chess program at MIT. It ran on an IBM 704 (42,000 instructions per second), one of the last vacuum tube computers.  It took about 8 minutes to make a move after a 4-ply search. The Bernstein Chess Program was the prototype of a selective forward pruning technique called the Shannon Type B (selective search, rather than Type A – brute force) program. His program searched four plies and considered seven most plausible moves from each position, evaluating material, mobility, area control and king defense.

Jeremy Bernstein is an American programmer. In 2010, he founded the OpenChess Forum. He was a co-author of Komodo 7.

Albert Bertilsson is a Swedish computer scientist and programmer. In 2002, he developed #Chess, written entirely in C#. In 2003, he developed the chess engine Sharper, written in C++.

Wim van Beusekom is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1989, he wrote the chess program Tobber.

Stanley Bialek designed the Fideleity Challenger board and patented the design. He, along with Andrew Najda, wrote the chess program Number Nine Chess.

Dr. Aart Bik is a Dutch computer scientist. In 2007, he developed the chess engine BikJump. He also developed the standalone chess application Chess for Android and implemented Chess for Glass.

Walt Bilofsky is an American computer scientist, programmer, entrepreneur, and philanthropist. In 1980, he founded The Software Toolworks, Inc. In 1986, he was one of the creators of Chessmaster 2000.

John Birmingham is a British computer scientist and programmer. In 1973, worked on the chess playing program called Minimax algorithm Tester (Master), translating the original Algol code into PL/I.

Alexander Bitman (1939-2013) was a Russian programmer. He co-developed the ITEP Chess Program. He later became a member of the KAISSA team. In 1988, he was the tournament director of the first Soviet Computer Chess Championship. In 2013, he was killed by a hit-and-run driver in Moscow.

Dr. Yngvi Bjornsson is an Icelandic computer scientist. In 1996, along with Andreas Junghanns, he developed the chess program The Turk. He served as Vice-President of the International Computer Games Association (ICGA) from 2005 until 2011.

David Blackman is a software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1989, he authored the chess program Desperado.

William Blanchard is an American computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He, along with David Slate, created the chess program NUCHESS at Northwestern University in 1980.

German Blanquer is a Spanish computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. In 1993, he co-authored the chess engine Killer, written in Turbo Pascal.

Uri Blass is an Israeli mathematician and computer chess programmer. In 2004, he developed the chess engine Movei.

Dr. Woodrow Bledsoe (1921-1995) was an American mathematician and computer scientist. He published tournament reports on the early ACM chess championships.

Eiko Bleicher is a German computer scientist and programmer. In 2005, he authored the analysis tool for chess endgames, called Freezer. He has developed endgame bitbases for Shredder, called shredderbases.

Marco Block-Berlitz is a German computer scientist. In 2002, he founded the working group chess programming and developed a chess engine called FUSc#, written in C#.

Ikka Blom is a Finnish chess problem composer. In 1980, he wrote Alybadix for chess problem solving. It is one of the oldest software programs for chess problems.

Fonzy Bluemers is a Dutch software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2007, he co-authored the chess engine Dirty.

Martin Blume is a German computer scientist. In 2001, he wrote Arena, a Windows chess GUI.

Dr. Robert Blumofe is an American computer scientist and programmer. In 1994, he co-authored Star Socrates, MIT’s first Cilk chess program.

Volker Boehm is a German computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2004, along with Ralf Schafer, he developed the chess engine Spike, which won the first Livingston Chess960 Computer World Championship in 2005.

Sebastian Boehme is a German chess player and opening book author for HIARCS and The Baron chess engine.

Harold (Hal) Bogner is an American chess master and associate producer of chess software at Eletronic Arts. He assisted David Kittinger with WChess in testing and input for evaluation ideas.

Claudio Bollini is an Argentinian theologian and scientific programmer. In 1998, he developed the chess engine Genesis.

Dr. Alan Bond (1940- ) is a British American physicist. He was a promoter of early computer chess conferences.

Ivan Bonkin is a Russian chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote the chess program Bison.

Gary Boos of the University of Minnesota, along with James Mundstock, wrote a chess program in 1967. They called their chess program MR. TURK, written in Fortran and ran on a CDC 6600. They later wrote a computer chess program called IRON FISH.

Michael Borgstaedt is a German IT consultant and computer chess programmer. In 1996, he developed a chess program called InterChess. It later became a commercial program called Goliath.

Dr. Martin Borriss is a German computer scientist. In 2000, he wrote Gullydeckel, a free open source chess engine.

Dr. Borko Boskovic is a Slovenian computer scientist. He is the author of BBChess and MinkoChess, both free open source chess programs.

Former world champion Mikhail Botvinnik (1911-1995) had a PhD in Electrical Engineering and worked as an electrical engineer and developed computer chess programs. He became interested in computer chess in the 1950s. Botvinnik's research on chess-playing programs concentrated on "selective searches", which used general chess principles to decide which moves were worth considering. This was the only feasible approach for the primitive computers available in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, which were only capable of searching three or four half-moves deep (i.e., A's move, B's move, A's move, B's move) if they tried to examine every variation. In the 1970s, he developed a computer chess program called PIONEER with the aim to develop a chess program to model a chess master’s mind.

Dr. Marc Boule is a Canadian electrical engineer and computer scientist. In 2002, he authored a chess program called MBChess, written in C.

Marc Bourzutschky is an American physicist. He created six-piece endgame tablebases (EGTBs) for Chessmaster. In 2005, he created 7-man EGTBs. In 2006, he found a 517-move win in a king-queen-knight vs. king-rook-bishop-knight endgame.

Jean-Louis Boussin, is a French computer chess programmer. In 2005, he developed Fute, a private chess program.

Ross Boyd is an Australian computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote TRACE, a free WinBoard-compliant chess engine, written in C.

Matthew Brades in an English chess programmer. He joined the Computer Chess Club at age 12. He is the author of chess engines Magic, FruitFly, Dorpsgek, and Firenzina.

Bruno Bras is a French computer chess programmer. He is the author of chess engines Nest, Gemie, Pacque Expert, Chess Christy, Kristy Lenix, Soft Jacqueline Bras, and Chess Ebbiz 9. Witali Braslawski is a Ukrainian born German software developer. In 1991, he developed Chess Academy, a commercial multiple purpose chess GUI.

Ivan Bratko is a Slovenian computer scientist. He, along with Danny Kopec, developed the Bratko-Kopec Test, the standard test for chess computers. In 1982, it was used to evaluate human or machine ability based on the presence or absence of certain knowledge.

Dr. Oliver Brausch is a German computer scientist. In 2004, he wrote OliThink, an open source chess program with C and Java versions available.

Andrey Brenkman is a Russian software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2006, he developed ifrit, an open source chess engine.

Dr. Eric Brewer is an American computer scientist. He contributed to the Socrates chess program.

David Bringhurst is an American software engineer. He was director of software development at Software Toolworks and Mindscape. In 1991, he developed the graphics programming of Chessmaster 3000.

Bernard Broit is a French computer chess programmer. In 1992, he developed the chess program BBchess, written in Pascal.

Mark Bromley is an American computer scientist. In 1993, he was involved in the StarTech massive parallel computer chess project for the 512-processor Connection Machine CM-5.

David Broughton is a British computer chess programmer who worked for Philidor Software and Intelligent Software companies. He wrote a chess program called VEGA in 1979, written on the Z80 North Star Horizon machine. He also helped develop Parker Chess and the SciSys Chess Champion Mark V.

Michael Browne is an American computer scientist. As a student at the Carnegie-Mellon University, he was a member of the Deep Thought team. He was responsible for Deep Thought’s opening book.

Dr. Craig Bruce is a Canadian computer scientist and senior software developer. In 1990, along with Kevin Phillips, he developed KC Chess, written in Turbo Pascal to run under MS-DOS computers.

Dr. Alexander Brudno (1918-2009) was a Soviet mathematician. In 1963, he independently discovered the alpha-beta algorithm. The algorithm was implemented in the ITEP Chess Program. He later led the team that created the chess program KAISSA at Moscow’s Institute of Control Sciences. He moved to Israel in 1991.

Alex Brunetti is an Italian computer scientist. In 2010, he developed the chess engine Protej, written in Delphi and Assembly.

Martin Bryant is a British computer scientist who worked at Philidor Software and Intelligent Software. In 1979, he wrote White Knight, a chess program written in Pascal. In 1983, he developed Colossus, a chess program for the Apple II in 6502 Assembly.

Gabor Buella is a Hungarian software developer. In 2009, he wrote Zochova, an open source chess engine.

Dieter Buerssner is a German chemist and programmer. In 2001, he wrote the strong chess engine Yace (Yet Another Chess Engine). He helped develop chess training software for Palm and Pocket-PC.

Joost Buijs is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 1977, he authored the chess program Nightmare, which began on a Heathkit H8. He co-authored Goldbar in the early 1990s.

Geoffrey Bulmer is a British mathematican and physicist. In 1981, he wrote a microcomputer chess program called Chessnut, which ran on a modified Acorn computer with a 6502 processor.

Guy Burkill is a British engineer and former computer chess programmer. In 1978, he wrote a chess program called FAFNER. He wrote a chess program called MAX in 1979.

Joerg Burwitz is a German computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess program Doigenes, and the co-author with Rainer Serfling of the dedicated board chess computer Milobarus.

Shay Bushinsky is an Israeli computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the co-author, with Amir Ban, of Junior and Deep Junior chess engines.

Vladimir Butenko is a Russian computer scientist. He worked with Mikhail Botvinnik on Pioneer, a chess program that ran on an M-20. Butenko was invited to play in the first Soviet Computer Chess Championship in 1988 with his own chess program, but he required a mainframe, which was not feasible to arrange.

Vadim Bykov is a Russian chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote Zeus, a Winboard-compatible chess engine, written in C.

Michael Byrne is a computer chess aficionado. He wrote many computer chess articles for Computer Chess Reports in the 1990s. He served as moderator in the Computer Chess Club (CCC). He is a member of the Crafty team. Crafty is a portable open source chess engine written by Robert Hyatt in ANSI C.

Carlos del Cacho is a Spanish software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2000, he authored the open source chess engine Pepito.

David Cahlander is an American computer scientist. He was a team member and hardware consultant of the Northwestern University’s chess program Chess in the 1970s. He designed the Chess 4,7 Sensory Board in 1978.

Gary Calnek is a Canadian computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1974, he was a co-author of Ribbit, a mainframe chess program, and its successor, Treefrog in 1975.

Carmelo Calzerano is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote Leila, a UCI-compatible chess engine.

Dr. Murray Campbell is a research scientist at IBM. In 1986, while at Carnegie-Mellon University, he, along with Feng-hsiung Hsu and Thomas Anantharaman, developed ChipTest. It was the predecessor of Deep Thought, which evolved into Deep Blue. ChipTest was based on a special VLSI-technology move generator chip, controlled by a Sun-3/160 workstation. It was capable of searching 50,000 moves per second. In 1989, Campbell joined IBM to develop Deep Blue. He was a member of the Deep Blue team that beat Garry Kasparov in 1997.

Sedat Canbaz is a Turkish computer chess aficionado. He is a computer chess aficionado. He is the tester and director of the Sedat Computer Chess Test (SCCT) tournament and rating site. He is the author of various opening books, such as “Perfect.”

Giuseppe Canella is an Italian software developer and software engineer. In 2013, he authord the open source chess engine Cinnamon (formerly Butterfly). Cinnamon is bundled with the Tarrasch GUI for Windows.

Mario Raul Carbonell-Martinez is a Spanish computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. He is co-author of the chess engine Killer.

Ulysse Carion is an American programmer. In 2013, he authored Godot, a Java chess program.

Jose Carlos is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 1999, he wrote the chess engine Averno. In 2003, he wrote the chess engine Anubis.

Dr. Frederic Roy Carlson is an American electrical engineer. In 1972, he co-authored the chess program USC CP. In 1974, he co-authored Tyro.

Dr. Gerardo Recio is a medical doctor and chess programmer. In 1993, he authored the chess program Zeus. In 1997, he wrote the chess program Toledo. In 1999, he wrote the chess program Caligula.

Eugene Castillo-Jimenez is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 1996, he wrote the chess program Eugen. In 2002, he co-authored the chess program Chinito.

Pedro Castro-Elgarresta is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 2005, he authored the chess engine DanaSah. In 2008, he authored the chess engine Caligula.

Fabio Cavicchio is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2001, he authored the strong chess engine Delfi. It was written in Pascal with x86 inline assembly and compiled with Delphi.

Antonio Ceballos is a Spanish project manager and software engineer. He is the co-maintainer of GNU Chess.

Frank Ceruti is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. In 1968, along with Rolf Smith, he co-authored the early mainframe chess program Schach. It was written in Fortran.

Steve Chafitz is an American engineer and entrepreneur. Along with his wife Arleen, he founded Chafitz, Inc in the early 1970s. Chafitz, Inc. launched their first dedicated chess computer called Boris in 1978, running on a Fairchild F8 8-bit microprocessor.

David G. Champernowne (1912-2000) was an English mathematician.  He was Professor of Statistical Economics at Oxford (1848-1959) and professor of Economics and Statistics at Cambridge (1970-2000).  In 1948, he helped develop one of the first chess-playing computer programs, called TURBOCHAMP (which beat Champernowne’s wife in its only victory).

Rasjid Chan is a Singaporean chess programmer. In 1999, he authored the chess program SnailChess. He later authored Cowrie Chess.

Stephen Chen was an early microcomputer chess programmer from Hong Kong. In 1979, he was the author of the chess program used in the dedicated Conic ComputerCchess. Manik Charan is an Indian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2016, he wrote WyldChess, and open source chess engine. In 2018, he wrote Teki, a free, UCI-compliant open source chess engine, written in C++. He also authored the tool epd2uci.py to test UCI engines over Extended Position Description (epd) collections.

Shawn Chidester is an American senior software engineer. In the early 1990s, he authored the chess engines CACIO, Clubfoot, Bitfoot, Clunk, Bumblebee, and the Senjo C++ UCI adaptor.

Vadim Chizhov, is a Russian chess programmer. In 2007, he authored the chess program Counter written in C# to run under Windows .Net.

Mikhail Chudako is a Russian electrical engineer and computer scientist. From 1980 until 1990, he was a member of the Pioneer computer team, led by Mikhail Botvinnik.

Piotr Cichy is a Polish computer chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote a chess engine called nanoSzachy. It was only 29kB, but played at over 2400 strength. He also wrote pikoSzachy. It is 8 kB and about 2200 Elo strength.

Didzis Cirulis is a Latvian computer chess expert and chess program tester. He was involved in testing Chess Tiger, Rebel, Chess Genius, and Hiarcs.

Gianluca Cisana is a computer chess programmer. In 2002, he authored the chess engine BremboCE.

Michael Clarke ( -1994) was a British computer scientist. He was the editor of the first Advances in Computer Chess proceedings in 1977, and organized the Advances in Computer Chess 3conference in London in 1981.

Philipp Classen is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2000, he authored the chess engine Ghost, written in C++.

Truman Collins is an American computer scientist. In 1985, he authored the chess program Pawnder which runs on a PC under MS-DOS.

John Comeau (1930-2005) was an American electrical engineer. In 1978, he wrote Chekmo-II for the PDP-8.

Dr. Joe Condon (1935-2012) was an American experimental physicist and electrical engineer. While at Bell Labs, he implemented a hardware move generator used with the software version of Belle on the PDP-11 in 1976. A Fredkin Prize of $5,000 was presented to Joe Condon and Ken Thompson for their work on the first computer to earn a USCF master rating.

Christopher Conkie is a chess programmer. He is the author of the private chess engine Arzael. He serves as main tester for the Arena team. Arena is a free GUI for Chess Engine Communication Protocol and UCI-compatible engines running under Windows.

Dennis Cooper is an American electrical engineer, computer scientist, and early computer chess programmer. He, along with Ed Kozdrowski, wrote a chess program called COKO in 1969.

Jeffrey and Clare Cooper, British chess programmers, wrote a program called WIZARD in 1979. In 1982, they wrote the chess program Gambiet ’82.

Dann Corbit is an American software engineer and programmer. He authored the chess engines Bean Counter and Beowulf.

Frederico Corigliano is an Argentinian computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2002, he authored the chess engine Chispa, which was one of the first Chess960 engines. In 2007, he authored HeavyChess.

A. Cornish wrote a chess program called COCMA in 1978.

Claudio della Corte is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2001, he authored Esc, a WinBoard-compatible chess engine written in C++.

Marco Costalba is an Italian software developer. In 2008, he began working of the chess engine Stockfish.

Gady Costeff is an Israeli American programmer. In 2003, he authored the Chess Query Language (CQL), a query language to search for games, problems, and studies to match the specific themes from a collection of PGN games.

Remi Coulom is a French computer scientist and programmer. In 1997, he authored The Crazy Bishop chess program. It was one of the pioneers in supporting the Chess Engine Communications Protocol.

Garth Courtois (1949-1996) was an American chess programmer. In 1975, wrote a chess program called ETAOIN SH for the Nova 1200 minicomputer.

Dr. Anthony Cozzie is an American computer scientist. In 2005, he wrote the chess program Zappa.

Stuart Cracraft is an American computer scientist. In 1984, he began working on writing GNU Chess, a free software chess engine. In 1994, he authored Gazebo, a Windows chess program, which was later incorporated into GNU Chess 5.

Matt Craighead is an American mathematician, programmer, and computer scientist. In 1993, at the age of 11, he wrote Neptune, a chess program written in Pascal and C. In 1995, he started a complete rewrite of Neptune called Morgoth.

Russel Crook is a Canadian physicist and computer scientist. In 1974, he co-authored the mainframe program Ribbit. In 1975, he co-authored Treefrog.

Don Cross is an American software engineer. In 1993, he authored Chenard open source chess program. He also authored the chess program Flywheel.

Dr. Balazs Csanad Csaji is a Hungarian computer scientist. In 2002, he authored the chess program Pandora, written in C++.

Robert Cullum is an American computer chess programmer from Illinois. In 1989, he authored the chess program BP, a selective program written in C and x86 assembly language that ran on a Compaq 386 IBM PC or compatible.

Dariusz Czechowski is a Polish computer chess programmer. In 2010, he authored Darmenios, a WinBoard-compliant chess engine.

Nicolai Czempin is a German computer scientist and programmer. He is the author of the Java chess engine Eden.

Thorsten Czub is a German computer chess aficionado and tester. In 1997, he was the founder of the Computer Chess Club.

Donald Dailey (1956-2013) was an American chess researcher and programmer. In 1985, he authored the chess program Rex. From 2010 to 2013, he was the primary author of the chess engine Komodo.

Chris Daly was a NASA researcher at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In1970, he, along with Kenneth King of Information Displays, Inc., wrote the assembly language chess program Daly CP. It ran on a stand-alone computer-aided design (CAD) platform IDIIOM (IDI Input-Output Machine), based on a Varian Data Machine 620/I minicomputer. The program required 4Kbyte of memory and search all moves to a depth of 4 ply.

Tijs van Dam is a Dutch computer scientist. In 2003, he authored Gk, an open source chess engine, written in C++.

Alessandro Damiani is an Italian/Swiss software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1998, he authored the chess engine Fortress, written in C.

Dr. Denis Dancanet is a Romanian-born mathematician and computer scientist. In 1985, he co-authored a chess program called Tumult for a 6502 Apple II.

Kaare Danilesen is a Danish computer scientist. In 1981, he developed LogiChess, a dedicated chess computer for an Intel 8048. In 1985, he wrote the book Turbo GameWorks, including a disk with Pascal source code of Turbo Chess. In 1986, he developed Enterprise, a dedicated chess computer for the 6800 instruction set.

Matteo D’Annibale is an Italian software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2012, he authored the chess engine BackMamba.

Viorel Darie is a Moldavian-born, Romanian mathematician and computer scientist. In 1976, he developed Astro 64, the first Romanian chess program. It ran on a Felix C-256 mainframe computer. He is also the author of the PC program Friendly Chess.

David Darling is a British astronomer. During the early 1980s, he was affiliated with Cray Research. He won one of the team members of Cray Blitz.

Jon Dart is an American software developer and chess programmer. In 1994, he authored an open source engine called Arasan, written in C++. It runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.

Dr. Omid David is a computer scientist. In 2002, he authored the chess engine Genesis. In 2003, he authored the private chess engine, Falcon.

Sito Dekker is a Dutch physicist, electrical engineer, and computer scientist. In 1979, he co-authored Pion, a chess program written in C. In 1986, he wrote Dutch, a chess program written in C.

Giancarlo Delli Colli ( -2017) was a Italian software developer. In 2005, he authored the chess engine Lion, initially written in Java and later ported to C++. The engine was based on the source code of the chess engine Fruit. In 2007, he authored the chess engine Cipollino. In 2009, he authored the chess engine Equinox.

Wolfgang Delmare is a German physicist and computer scientist. In 1986, he authored the chess engine Chat, written in Pascal. In 1989, he authored the commercial chess program Check Check. In 1993, he co-authored, with Thorsten Kofeldt, the chess program Experimental.

Vadim Demichev is a Russian chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Grapefruit. In 2013, he authored the chess engine GullChess.

Dr. Werner-Jimmy-DeVienna DePaul-Schimanovich-Gottig is an Austrian mathematician and computer scientist. In 1979, he co-developed Merlin, a computer chess program that ran on an IBM 370.

Jan Derksen is a Dutch computer scientist and former chess programmer. In 1979, he co-authored the chess program Pion and was able to port the program to run on a VAX 11/780.

Marc Derksen is a Dutch computer scientist. In 1986, he developed a chess playing computer The Final Chesscard, a forerunner of the ChessMachine. He was the GUI and interface developer of the ChessMachine, TascBase, and Chessica.

Dr. Alvin Despain co-developed the Berkeley Chess Microprocessor (BCM) in 1990. It was able to generate 3 million chess moves a second.

Olivier Deville is a computer chess tester. Starting in 2003, he started engine-engine chess tournaments such as ChessWar, OpenWar, and AEGT. In 2008, he became the administrator of the Winboard Forum.

Antonio Manuel Dieguez-Rojas is a Chilean software developer and chess programmer. In 2000, he authored Armyan, a chess engine written in C++. It was ported to a Java applet to run in a Web browser using a Java virtual machine. In 2006, Armyan won the first annual ACCA Americas’ Computer Chess Championship, played on ICC over the Internet.

Peter van Diepen is a Dutch computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1978, he authored the chess program IGM (Ik Ga Mat, I’m Going to be Mated).

Vincent Diepeveen is a Dutch chess programmer. In 1993, he authored the chess program Grijp. In 1994, he authored the private chess program Diep, written in C.

Leo Dijksman ( -2015) was a Dutch computer chess expert. He was a tester and promoter of WinBoard engines and organized chess engine competitions.

Michael Diosi is a German computer chess aficionado. He is a primary Arena chess engine tester and Arena webmaster.

Dusan Dobes is a Czech computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1998, he authored the open source chess engine Phalanx.

Ralf Doer is a German computer chess programmer. In 2003, he authored the private chess engine Nexus, written in Pascal and compiled with Delphi. In 2005, he authored the chess engine Argonaut.

Franziskus Domig is an Austrian computer scientist and software engineer. He is the co-author of the chess engine Chess at Nite, and the author of the open source chess engine Cochess.

Dr. Chrilly Donninger is an Austrian computer scientist. In 1991, he was the primary developer of the chess program Nimzo. In 2004, he was the chief programmer of Hydra, a chess-playing entity based on a cluster computer containing Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

Mikhail Donskoy (1948-2009) was a Soviet computer scientist and chess programmer. He helped program KAISSA, which won the first World Computer Chess Championship in 1974.

Luca Dormio is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 1999, he authored Larsen VB, a WinBoard-compliant open source chess engine.

Dan Drew (1926-2008) was an American computer scientist. In 1968, he was involved in the development of the chess program Schach at Texas A&M University, written in Fortran.

Alejadnro Dubrovsky is an Australian computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2000, he authored the chess engine Unches, which was later named Small Potato.

Michael Duffy us an American software architect. In 1986, he joined Software Toolworks and created Chessmaster 2000.

Dr. Harold Jacques Dutka (1919-2002) was an American mathematician. In 1970, he was the tournament director of the first US computer chess championship, held in New York.

Michael Dvorkin is a Lithuanian-born American computer scientist and software developer. In 2014, he authored the experimental open source chess engine Donna.

Donald Eastlake is an American mathematician and computer scientist. In 1966, he was a co-developer of the Greenblatt chess program (Mac Hack VI).

Carl Ebeling is an American computer scientist and electrical engineer. He was part of the team that developed Hitech with Hans Berliner.

Stefan Edlich is a German computer engineer and scientist. He is the author of EdlChess and Rasbojnik chess engines.

Steven James Edwards (1957-2016) was an American computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He coordinated and specified the PGN and EPD standards, as well as the FEN-position description. He was the author of several chess programs and toolkits. In 1987, he wrote the chess program Specter, written in ANSI C.

Michael Ehrig is a German computer chess programmer. In 1993, he authored the chess engine Greif.

Hrafn Eriksson is an Icelandic computer scientist. He is the author of the open source engine Ziggy.

Aron Eisenpress is an American computer scientist. In 1970, he co-authored the chess program CCCP while at Columbia University.

Wim Elsenaar is a Dutch computer scientist. In 1968, he wrote the Chess 0.5X chess program that ran on a PDP-11.

Sean Empey (1976-2008) was an American computer scientist. In 2000, he wrote Storm, a WinBoard-compliant chess engine.

Herbert Enderton is an American computer scientist and software developer. From 1995 until 2005, he was a senior programmer at the Internet Chess Club (ICC).

Matthias Engelbach is a German chess programmer and electrical engineer. In 1978, he wrote the chess program Schach in Algol running on mainframe computers.

Ed English is an American computer scientist and programmer. In 1979, he was affiliated with Fidelity Electronics, where he developed software for microcomputer chess games. He improved the alpha-beta implementation of Chess Challenger 7, doubling its playing speed.

Johan Enroth was a Swedish computer chess official. In 1979, he founded the Swedish section of the International Computer Chess Association (ICCA) and organized the Stockholm Microcomputer Chess Tournaments.

Norbert Esser is a German computer chess programmer. In 2003, he co-authored Nexus, a strong private chess engine, written in Pascal.

Philippe Fabiani is a French computer chess programmer. In 2004, he authored Delphil, a UCI-compliant chess engine.

Syed Fahad is a computer chess programmer from Kashmir. He is the author of the chess engines Chesser and Yaka.

Basil Falcinelli is a computer programmer. He introduced and published a Linux port of the Gull 3 chess engine, which evolved in LazyGull.

Andrew Fin is a British software development engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2003, he authored the chess engine KKFChess. In 2004, he authored the UCI-compliant chess engine Firefly, written in C.

Ubaldo Andrea Farina is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the chess engine Fauce. In 2002, he wrote the strong commercial chess engine Chiron.

Scott Farrell is an Australian computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote the private Java chess engine Chompster.

Robert Fatland is an American geophysicist. In 1986, he worked on Waycool, a massive parallel chess program from CalTech, running on nCUBE/10 concurrent computer hypercube topology.

Mathias Feist is a German computer chess programmer and a ChessBase employee. In the late 1980s, he ported the ChessBase database program from Atari ST to the MS-DOS operating system-based PCs. He and Frans Morsch co-authored the Fritz chess engine.

Dr. Rainer Feldmann is a German computer games researcher and chess programmer. In 1990, he co-authored the massive parallel chess program Zugzwang.

Fre Felkers is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 1985, he authored Delta, a chess program written in Turbo Pascal.

Ed Felten is an American computer scientist. In 1986, he was a co-author of the massive parallel chess program Waycool.

Peter Fendrich is a Swedish engineer and computer scientist. In 1980, he authored the chess program Terra. In 2007, he authored the chess program Alaric.

Niklas Fiekas is a German software developer. He is the primary author of python-chess, a chess library written in Python featuring move generation and validation, PGN reading, and opening book reading.

Dr. Martin Fierz is a Swiss physicist. In 2004, he authored Muse, an UCI-compliant chess engne, written in C.

William Fink is an American chess programmer. In 1981, he authored Sfinks, an early commercial chess program for the IBM PC. It was written in Z80 assembly language for the TRS-80 microcomputer, then ported to 8086-assembly for the IBM PC.

Bugra Firat is a Turkish-Canadian computer scientist. He is the author of OPEX, a web-based chess openings explorer using ECO classification.

Gerold Fischer is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1996, he authored the chess program Heureka.

Kurt Fischer is a German mathematician, computer scientist, and early chess programmer. In 1965, along with Hans-Jochen Schneider, he is the author of the first German chess program, Fischer-Schneider. It was initially written in assembly language, and later ported to an IBM 360.

Sune Fischer is a Danish software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2002, he authored the chess engine Frenzee, written in C++.

Tim Foden is a British software engineer and computer chess programmer. In 1997, he authored Green Light Chess, a WinBoard-compliant chess engine written in C++.

Dr. David Fogel is an American engineer and computer scientist. He is the co-author of an evolutionary chess program called Blondie25.

Josue Forte is a Brazilian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1994, he authored Matheus, a UCI-compatible chess engine.

Andrei Fortuna is a Romanian software developer. In 1999, he authored the chess engine Chess 176. In 2000, he authored the open source chess engine Freyr.

Marty Franz is an American computer scientist and software engineer. In 2002, he authored the WinBoard-compliant open source chess engine Jester, written in ANSI C.

Dr. Colin Frayn is a British Astronomer. He is the author of the chess engines ColChess and Beowolf.

In 1980, Edward Fredkin (1934- ), an MIT professor, created the Fredkin Prize for Computer Chess. He offered $5,000 for the first computer to have an established master’s rating. The award came with $100,000 for the first program to beat a reigning world chess champion. The trustee for the prize was Carnegie Mellon University and the fund was administered by Hans Berliner.

Terry Fredrick is a computer programmer. He was affiliated with Applied Concepts in the early 1980s. While there, he modified and enhanced the Sargon chess program. He also developed the software for a robot chess player and a chess game for the Apple II. He was a team member of the Boris Experimental in 1981.

Peter Frey is a computer scientist. He is editor of and contributor to Chess Skill in Man and Machine. In 1978, he wrote Chess 0.5 in Pascal.

Dirk Frickenschmidt is a computer chess expert and one of the founders of the Computer Chess Club (CCC).

Frederic Friedel, along with Matthias Wullenweber, wrote the first ChessBase database in 1986. In 1983, he was the publisher and editor of Computerschach und Spiele.

Dr. Matteo Frigo is an Italian computer scientist and programmer. He was a member of the teams in developing Star Socrates and Cilkchess computer chess programs.

Roger Frye is an American mathematician and computer scientist. In 1993, he was on the team that helped design the StarTech chess project and got it running on the CM-5 Connection Machine.

Lawrence Futrell is an American computer scientist. In 1973, he wrote the chess program Ga Tech CP. It ran on a Burroughs B-5500.

Jean-Christophe Gabillard is a French computer scientist. In 1997, he authored the UCI-compatible chess engine Nejmet.

Thomas Gaksch is a German software developer and chess programmer. In 1987, he authored the chess program Hypra-Chess, written in 6510 assembly language. In 2004, he authored Toga, ising the Frut 2.0 source code.

Dr. Otto Garms is a German mathematician. In 2009, he authored the commercial chess engine Onno, written in C++.

Peter Garscha is a mathematician and computer scientist. In 2015, he authored the UCI-compliant experimental source chess engine Madlenka.

Scott Gasch is an American computer scientist. In 2000, he authored Monsoon, written in C. He followed it up with Typhoon, a multithreaded successor.

Laszlo Gaspar is a Hungarian software engineer and chess programmer. In 2007, he wrote Timea, a private UCI-compliant chess engine, written in Java. He also authored the chess engine Nimrod, written in Java.

Reinhold Gellner is a former computer chess programmer. In 1989, he co-authored the chess program Nightmare, written in C.

Stefano Gemma is an Italian computer chess programmer. He is the author of chess programs Drago, Raffaela, Freddia, Satana, and Sabrina.

Matthias Gemuh is a German former computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines BigLion, Taktix, and ArcBishop. He is the author of the graphical chess user interface ChessGUI. He is the author of FindDraw, to detect draws in PGN files.

Pascal Georges is a French software developer. In 2006, he started working on Shane’s Chess Information Database (SCID). He added UCI, FICS, and Novag Citrine support, docking modes, training features, and ported SCIT to the Pocket PC.

Mincho Georgiev is a Bulgarian computer chess programmer. In 2009, he authored the UCI-compatible open source chess engine Pawny, written in C.

George Georgopoulos is a Greek electrical engineer. In 2012, he authored the open source chess engine NG-play.

Evert Giebbeek is a Dutch astrophysicist. He is the author of the open source chess engines Jazz, Sjaak, and Leonidas.

Salvatore Giannotti is an Italian computer scientist. In 2014, he authored the WinBoard compliant chess engine Gogobello, written in C.

Martin Giepmans ( -2009) was a Dutch computer chess programmer. He was the author of the chess engines SpiderChess and Anatoli, both written in Delphi.

Markus Gille is a German chess programmer. In 1994, he co-authored the chess program Dark Thought. It was a brute-force program that ran on a DEC 3000-600, looking at 60,000 nodes per second. It had an opening book containing 250,000 positions.

Peter Gillgasch is a Germancompuer scientist, software developer, and former computer chess programmer. In 1992, he developed the Pascal predecessor of a computer chess program that later evolved to Dark Thought.

Dr. James Gillogly was a computer scientist at the RAND Corporation. In 1969, he wrote a chess program in standard FORTRAN IV which utilized a standard alpha-beta lookahead search of selected portions of the move tree. The program played several complete games of chess. In 1970, Gillogy wrote TECH (Technology Chess Program), a chess program, was written in BLISS. Hans Berliner helped in developing positional analysis (evaluation). It was based on a brute force search of the move tree with no forward pruning. Tech was the first program that used its opponent’s thinking time to its own advantage. While its opponent was computing a move, TECH would predict what it would be and then proceed to calculate a reply based on the prediction. Its predictions were correct about 20% of the time.

Alick F. Glennie (1925-2003) was the first person to beat a computer program at chess. He defeated Alan Turing’s chess program, TurboChamp, in 1952 in Manchester, England. Glennie wrote the first real compiler (autocode) for a computer in 1952. It translated symbolic statements into machine language for the Manchester Mark I computer. Autocoding later came to be a generic term for assembly programming. Glennie did computational work for the British atomic bomb.

Fabio Gobbato is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2013, he authored Pedone, a UCI-compliant chess engine, written in C.

Dr. Fernand Gobet is a Swiss psychologist. In 1993, he co-wrote the pattern learning chess program CHUMP. He is the principal investigator of CHREST (Chunk Hierarchy and Retrieval Structures).

Dr. Gordon Goetsch is an American mathematician, computer scientist, and software analyst and developer. He was a member of the Hitech team and wrote most of the system software that makes possible interfacing with the special purpose hardware.

Israel Gold is an Israeli computer scientist. In 1973, he co-wrote Peasant, a pawn endgame chess program.

Bart Goldhoom is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 1992, he wrote Goldbar, a private chess program in Pascal.

Michael Gondran is a French mathematician and physicist. In 1995, he co-authored the parallel chess program Frenchess which ran on a Cary T3D.

Jack Good (1916-2009) was a British statistician and computer pioneer. He published several papers related to computer chess. In 1968, he authored Five-Year Plan for Automatic Chess, a paper on how to improve chess computers.

David Goodrich is an American information technology consultant. In 1976, he was tasked to design and develop a computer program for a computerize chess game. In 1977, he helped release CompuChess, which ran on a Fairchild F8 8-bit processor, and manufactured by Data Cash Systems.

Frans van Gool is a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist. He was the author of the chess program Lammee, and the co-author of the chess program Ares.

Keith Gorlen is an American computer scientist and biomedical engineer. While a student at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, he, along with Larry Atkin, wrote a chess program called CHESS 1.0 in 1968. It ran on a CDC 6400 mainframe.

Cock de Gorter is a Dutch computer chess expert. He is a former chairman of the Dutch Computer Chess Federation (CSVN). He was the primary initiator and organizer of the Aegon Man-Machine chess tournaments.

Bill Gosper is an American mathematician and computer scientist. In the late 1960s, he was part of the MIT team that workedon Mac Hack VI.

Albert Gower, along with Robert Hyatt and Harry Nelson, developed BLITZ in 1977 and CRAY BLITZ at the University of Southern Mississippi in 1980.

Dr. Thore Graepel is a German physicist and computer scientist. He was involved in the AlphaZero project mastering the game of chess.

Henrik Gram is a Danish computer scientist. He was the founding member of the Board of Directors of the Free Internet Chess Server (FICS). In 1995, he was a key developer of FIPS. He is the initial author of icsDrone, an interface between an Internet Chess Server (ICS) and a chess engine supporting the XBoard/WinBoard protocol.

Richard D. Greenblatt (1945- ) is an American computer programmer. In late 1966, as an MIT undergraduate, he, along with Donald Eastlake at MIT and Stephen Crocker, began to develop a computer chess program of his own. Technical advice in the programming was given by Larry Kaufman (1947- ), Alan Baisley, and Robert A. Wagner. Greenblatt had been challenged by Hubert Dreyfus, who criticized the usefulness of Artificial Intelligence and was an anti-computer opponent, that computers would not be able to play chess or be good enough to beat a ten-year-old. An early version was up and running by the end of 1966. MIT was using a computer time-sharing grand called Project MAC (Multiple Access Computing). Greenblatt’s program ran on a PDP 6. He called his creation MAC HACK 6 and programmed it in assembly language. His program was able to beat Greenblatt’s critic, Hubert Dreyfus, which checkmated him in the middle of the board. In 1967, It was the first computer chess program to play in chess tournaments with human players. Greenblatt was offered an MIT degree if he would write a thesis about his chess program, but he never got around to writing a thesis. Greenblatt was the main designer of the MIT Lisp machine. In 1980, Greenblatt founded LMI (Lisp Machines, Inc) to market Lisp machines.

Alon Greenfeld is an Israeli grandmaster. Beginning in 208, he was the opening book author of the Junior chess program.

Thorsten Greiner is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1993, he wrote Amy, an open source chess program, written in C.

Marco Grella is an Italian chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote Rinko, a chess engine written in C.

David Grenewetzki is a software and game developer. In 1991, he was member of the programming team of the Chessmaster 3000 ches sprogram by Software Toolworks. In 1993, he did additional programming for the Chessmaster 4000 Turbo.

Edward de Grijs is a Dutch software engineer and developer. In 1991, he wrote Explorer, a chess playing entity. He later came up with a new chess special purpose hardware controlled by a 386SX PC, searching 350,000 nodes per second.

Neels Groenewald is a South African electrical engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote NagaSkaki, a chess engine communication protocol compatible chess engine.

Goran Grottling is a Swedish journalist. In 1994, he started the Svenska schackdatorforeningen (SSDF) rating list, run by the Swedish Chess Computer Association.

Raphael Grundrich is a French computer scientist. In 2003, he was the co-author of Cassandre open source chess engine.

Dr. Andrew Gruss is an American electrical engineer. In the late 1980s, he was member of the Hitech team at Carnegie-Mellon University. He was responsible for the hardware.

Erdogan Gunes is a Turkish-German computer expert and book author. He has supported chess programs such as Rondo, Fridolin, Deep Sjeng, Hiarcs, Goliath, Hydra, Zappa, Falcon, and Komodo.

Dr. Arthur Guez is a Canadian computer scientist. He was involved in the AlphaZero project, a chess entity by Google DeepMind. In December 2017, a 100-game match versus Stockfish 8 using 64 threads and a transposition table size of 1 GB, was won by AlphaZero using a single machine with 4 Tensor processing units. AlphaZero scored 28 wins, 72 draws, and no losses.

Tony Guiffoyle is a British computer scientist. In 1986, he co-authored with Richard Hooker Vaxchess, a chess program running on a MicroVAX II minicomputer.

Gabriel Guillory is a French software developer. He wrote the chess engines Castellar and Arion. He is the author of the PGN command tool PgnScanner, which can be used to create opening books.

Dr. Dmitri Gusev is computer scientist. In 2013, he co-authored Firenzina, a UCI-compliant open source chess engine.

Scott Haag is an American games programmer. He wrote the free computer chess program Shaag Chess. He is the author of the PGN Viewers ChessviewX Complete and Chess3D.

Sarha Hahn is an American English teacher. She supported the chess program Blondie25, an evolutionary chess program originally written by avid Fogel and Timothy Hayes.

Adam Hair is an American computer chess aficionado. He helped test the chess engine Gaviota. He is a member of the group that publishes the Computer Chess Rating List (CCRL).

Dr. Michael Halbherr is a Swiss computer scientist. In 1994, while at MIT, he worked on the chess program Cilf. He also contributed to the Socrates chess engine.

Eric Hallsworth is a British computer chess expert. In 1985, he began editing and producing Selective Search, a computer chess periodical. He is an opening book author and test member of the Hiarcs team.

John Hamlen is a computer chess and games programmer. In 1989 he wrote Woodpusher, which is a chess program less than 64K of conventional design.

Sam Hamilton is an American computer scientist. He is the author of the chess engine LearningLemming, and the co-author of the chess engine Hannibal.

Bas Hamstra is a Dutch software developer. In 2001, he wrote Tao, a WinBoard and UCI-compatible chess engine. He was the first author of Bookbuilder, a commercial chess program for analyzing chess opening positions and to build engine opening books.

Lasse Hansen is a Norwegian computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Sillycon.

Ron Hansen is an American computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1974, he was a co-author of Ribbit, a chess program written in Fortran that ran on a Honeywell 66/60 36-bit mainframe. In 1975, he was a co-author of Treefrog, a successor to Ribbit.

Suryadi Harmanto is an Indonesia computer scientist. In 1996, he led the development of Gunda-1, a Crafty chess engine clone.

Gunnar Harms is a Dutch computer scientist, software developer, and computer chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote Bobcat, an open source chess engine.

Jessica Harmsen is a Dutch chess GUI and chess database developer. In 1995, she created the chess database fo Chessica. She also developed the chess database for Chessmaster 6000 and Chessmaster 7000.

Larry Harris is an American computer scientist. He, along with Warren Montgomery, wrote a chess program called DARTMOUTH CP in 1973. In 1974, he led the development of Dart, a chess program developed at Dartmouth College. It was written in GCOS assembly language for the GE-635 Dartmouth Time Sharing System.

Dr. Dap Hartmann is a Dutch astronomer. In 1981, he and Peter Kouwenhoven wrote Dappet, a chess engine that competed in all 18 Dutch Open computer chess championships from 1981 to 1998.

Roman Hartmann is a Swiss computer chess programmer. In 2003 he wrote ROCE (roman’s Own Chess Engine), written in C.

Dr. Dennis Hassabis is a British computer scientist. He is the CEO of DeepMind, a British artificial intelligence company, which he founded in 2010. DeepMind was acquired by Google in 2014.

Timo Haupt is a German computer scientist. He is a computer chess aficionado, computer chess journalist, and computer chess tester.

Dirk Hauschildt is a German computer scientist. In 1979, he helped develop the chess programs Murks. In 1983, he helped develop the MicroMurks for the 6800 microcomputer.

Johan Havegheer is a Belgian computer chess aficionado. He was an early WinBoard promoter and tester of various chess programs, such as ant and Ruffian. He writes articles for Computerschaak. He is a member of the Chess Engines Grand Tournament (CEGT) rating list team. He helped in translating the Arena GUI for Windows.

Guy Haworth is a British computer scientist. He used retrograde analysis to create endgame tablebases. He served as Vice-President of the International Computer Games Association (ICGA) from 2002 until 2005.

Manfred Hegener is a German management engineer. In 1969, he co-founded Hegener & Glaser with Florian Glaser. In 1980, they were producing the Mephisto trademark chess computers. In 1996, he helped create the Millennium 2000 GambH company, which produces dedicated chess computers.

Raimund Heid is a German computer scientist and software developer. In 2000, he wrote Protector, a UCI-compliant open source chess engine.

Dr. Ernest Heinz is a German computer scientist. In 1993, he co-founded a computer chess group and started to write the DarkThought chess program.

Dan Heisman is a chess journalist and columnist. In 1996 and 1997, he work on the Deep Blue team.

Luca Hemmerich is a German computer chess programmer. In 2010, he developed ChessMind, a UCI-compliant chess engine.

David Hendricks is an American programmer. In 1992, he was the primary author of the early DOS chess program EdChess.

Elmer Henne is a German computer scientist and former chess programmer. In 1979, he was co-author of Parwell, a chess program which performed a distributed search on a 128-processor 8080 Siemens SMS 201 computer. He, along with Thomas Nietsche, programmed THE BRIKETT, the first German chess computer on the market in 1980. In 1980, his programs were added to the Mephisto dedicated chess computers.

Jaap van den Herik is a Dutch computer scientist. In 1980, he was a co-founder of the CSVN, the Dutch Computer Chess Association. From 1983 to 2015, he was Editor-in-Chief of the ICGA Journal. He is the co-author of the chess engines Pion, Dutch, and Much.

Andreas Hermann is a German software developer and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs ChessFiz, Holmes, and BlackBishop.

Mark Hersey is an American computer scientist. In 1983, while at the University of Michigan, he was a co-author of CHAOS, written in Fortran that needed over 3 million words of memory to execute.

Folkert van Heusden is a Dutch software engineer. He is the author of the experimental chess engines Pos and DeepBrutePos, both written in Java. In 2105, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Embla.

Dr. Kai Himstedt is a German computer scientist. He is a co-author of GridChess and Cluster Toga, cluster chess programs based on the open source chess programs Fruit and Toga.

Marty Hirsch is an American applied mathematician and computer chess programmer. He is the author of AI Chess and the commercial chess program MChess.

Lars Hjoerth is a Swedish former computer chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess programs Plymate and Y! He also worked on the Conchess program. Plymate was commercially marketed as a cartridge for the Conchess computers.

Joseph Hoane is an American software engineer. In 1990, he joined the Deep Thought team and was the principal software engineer for the Deep Blue project. His primary focus was the parallel search algorithm.

Filip Hoefer is a Czech software engineer. He is author of the Windows chess programs Chess 2012 and Chess 2013. They came in 32-bit and 64-bit editions.

Michael Hoffman is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2011, he wrote a UCI-compatible chess engine Nemo, written in C.

John (Jack) Holloway is an American computer scientist. In the late 1970s, he was involved in developing CHEOPS (Chess-oriented Processing System).

Dr. Daniel Homan is an American physicist. In 1998, he wrote the chess engine EXchess.

Dan Honeycutt is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. In the early 1970s, he wrote a little chess program in Basic. In 2004, he wrote Bruja, a chess engine written in C++. In 2005, he wrote Simon in C++. In 2012, he wote a Java open source chess engine Cupcake.

Richard Hooker is a British computer scientist and games programmer. In 1986, he co-authored Vaxchess that ran on a MicroVAX II minicomputer. It was written in C and assembly language, and searched about 1,000 nodes a second.

Helmut Horacek is an Austrian computer scientist. In 1979, he was a co-author of the chess program Merlin. The program was initially based on Chess 0.5 by Larry Atkin and Peter Frey.

David Horne is a British former chess programmer. In 1982, developed the 1K ZX Chess, which used only 672 bytes of RAM for the Sinclair ZX81. It was commercially used by Artic Computing. In 1983, he developed Chess Tutor for the ZX Spectrum. It teaches a beginner how to move the pieces.

Gyula Horvath is a Hungarian electrical engineer and chess programmer. In 1985, he started chess programming on a Commodore 64. In 1987, he was doing chess programming on an IBM PC. He is the primary author of the chess programs Pandix and Brainstorm. He is the author of the chess program for the dedicated CGX Sphinx H8 series.

Peter Horvath is a Hungarian software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1991, he wrote the chess program Robin for MS-DOS. In 2002, he wrote the UCI compliant chess engine Asterisk. In 2009, he wrote the chess engine Hussar.

Robert Houdart is a Belgian computer scientist and software developer. In 2010, he authored the strong computer chess engine Houdini.

Feng-hsiung Hsu at Carnegie-Mellon University, along with Thomas Anantharaman and Murray Campbell, developed ChipTest. It was the predecessor of Deep Thought, which evolved into Deep Blue. ChipTest was based on a special VLSI-technology move generator chip, controlled by a Sun-3/160 workstation. It was capable of searching 50,000 moves per second. He used the same architecture in Deep Thought and Deep Blue.

Rudolf Huber is a German computer scientist. In 1993, he wrote the chess program SOS. He later wrote its parallel version, ParSOS. In 2000, along wht Stefan Meyer-Kahle, he designed and created the User Chess Interface (UCI) protocol. It has almost replaced the older Chess Engine Communication Protocol (XBoard and WinBoard).

Barbara Huberman Liskov is an American mathematician and computer scientist. In 1968, she was the first woman in the United States to be awarded a Ph.D. in computer science, from Stanford University. The topic of her dissertation was a computer program to play chess endgames.

Thomas Hubert is a French computer scientist. He is involved in the AlphZero project that mastered the game of chess.

Shane Hudson is a New Zealand computer scientist. In 1999, he wrote the chess database program called SCID (Shane’s Chess Information Database). He is also the author of Scidlet, a chess engine that comes with SCID.

Roger Huenen is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess programs Pion (starting in 1979), Dutch (started in 1986), and Much (started in 1989)

Dr. Marc-Philippe Huget is a computer scientist. In 1997, he wrote the WinBoard-compliant chess engine La Dame Blanche.

John Huisman is a Dutch computer scientist. In the early 1980s, he was a co-author of the chess program Pion.

Mark Hummel is an Australian software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1998, he wrote the chess engine HexxPawn.

Hagen Huwig is a German mathematician and computer scientist. In 1973, he wrote Proscha, a mainframe chess program written in PL/I for the IBM 370.

Nguyen Viet Huy is a Vietnamese software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2009, he wrote Dolphin, a WinBoard-compliant open source chess program, written in C#.

Dr. Robert Hyatt is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1980, he, along with Albert Gower and Harry Nelson, developed CRAY BLITZ at the University of Southern Mississippi. In 1996, he wrote Crafty, a portable open source chess engine.

Alessandro Iavicoli is an Italian computer scientist. In 2012, he wrote AdaChess, written in Ada.

Dr. Huib-Jan Imbens is a Dutch physicist, mathematician, and computer scientist. He worked on the chess programs Genesis 2 and Petunia in 1992 and 1993.

Werner Inmann is an Austrian software developer. In 1997, he wrote ImmiChess.

Nicu Ionita is an Austrian computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of the UCI-compliant chess engines Abulafia and Barbarossa. He also wrote chessNet to connect chess engines to a UCI-compatible GUI via TCP/IP.

Yakup Ipek is a Turkish software developer. In 2004, he wrote the WinBoard-compliant open source chess engine the Turk, written in C#.

Giuliano Ippolito is an Italian computer scientist. In 2007, he wrote the chess engine GiuChess. He also wrote the Perl module Chess-Pay to play chess games, calculate legal moves, and use a search algorithm.

Dr. Azlan Iqbal is a Malaysian computer scientist. He developed a computational chess aesthetics model and incorporated it into a computer program called Chesthetica that can be used to automatically evaluate the beauty of thousands of three-move chess problems in a way that correlates well with human assessment.

Gerd Isenburg is a German computer scientist. He is the author of the chess programs IsiChess (written in 1994) and HansDamf.

Andrew Iverson is an American computer games developer. In 1991, he was a member of the programming team of the Chessmaster 3000 program while at Software Toolworks. In 1999, he was responsible for the Chessmaster II port for the PlayStation, published by Mindscape.

Miguel Izquierdo is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote the WinBoard-compatible chess engine Popchin.

John Jacobs was a chess consultant with Applied Concepts and was a book author of their dedicated chess computers, such as the Great Game Machine. In 1980, he was a team member of the Boris Experimental dedicated chess computer.

Siegfried Jahn is a German computer scientist. In 1974, he co-authored the chess program Daja, which later evolved to the chess program Elsa.

Balazs Jako is a Hungarian software engineer. In 2004, he wrote the chess engine Merlin.

Steffan Jakob is a German computer scientist. In 1988, he wrote the chess engine Hossa. He also wrote the chess engine Brause, a Crafty clone.

Peter Jansen is a Belgian computer scientist. In 1985, while a student at Carnegie-Mellon University, he was a member of the Deep Thought program. He wrote CHUMP (Chunking of Moves and Patterns), a pattern learning chess application based on a model of human memory.

Claude Jarry is a Canadian computer scientist. In 1976, he wrote a chess program called L'EXCENTRIQUE, which ran on an Amdahl mainframe computer.

Antonia Jeanrenaud (1945-2014) was and Italian computer scientist. In 2006, she wrote the chess engine EtaBeta, written in Visual Basic.

Colin Jenkins is a British software developer. In 2014, he wrote Lozza, a JavaScript open source chess engine.

Olaf Jenkner is a German mathematician and programmer. In 1990, he wrote Gustav, an orthodox chess problem solving program for the MS-DOS operating system.

Peter R. Jennings of Toronto is a Canadian physicist and computer chess programmer. He wrote a program called MICROCHESS for the MOS Technology KIM-1 6502 microprocessor in 1976. It was the first game program sold and shipped for home computers. It used 1100 bytes of RAM. It had 3 levels of play, requiring 3, 10, or 100 seconds. The program sold for $10. In 1977, he ported it to 8080/Z80-based microcomputers, such as the TRS-80. In 198, he created the chess programs for the Commodore ChessMate. In 1979, he created the chess programs for the Novag Chess Champion MK II.

Eric Jensen is an American computer scientist. In 1974, as a graduate student at Duke University, he was a co-author of the chess program Duchess.

Christopher Joerg is an American computer scientist and programmer. He is the co-author of the chess programs Socrates and Cilkchess.

J. Howard Johnson is a Canadian computer scientist. In 1981, he co-authored along with Jonathan Schaeffer the chess program Prodigy, written in C.

Mike Johnson is a British computer chess programmer. In 1978, he wrote a chess program called MIKE for a Motorola 6800 8-bit CPU. In 1978, it won the 1st Personal Computer World (PCW) championship, held in London. In 1980, along with Dave Wilson, he developed the chess program ADVANCE 1.0 using bit slice technology.

Werner Joho is a Swiss physicist. In 1967, he was a co-developer of Charly, a chess program for a CDC 1604.

Christophe Jolly is a French chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines BB and KnightX.

William (Bill) Johnson is an Australian computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Bills Bare Bones Chess and Awesome (written in 2001).

Daniel Jose-Queralto is and Andorran computer scientist. In 2013, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Andscacs.

Dr. Johan Joss is a Swiss mathematician. He started computer chess programming in 1967 on a CDC 1604 A. In 1974, he wrote a chess program called TELL. It won the first German computer chess tournament, held in Dortmund in 1975.

Dr. Andreas Junghanns is a German computer scientist. In 1996, along with Yngvi Bjornsson, he authored the experimental chess program, The Turk.

Jan Kaan is a Dutch physicist and computer chess programmer. In 2000, he wrote the opening book for the Yace chess engine. In 2001, he wrote the gambit chess program Djenghis.

Dr. Andrew Kadatch is a computer scientist and senior staff software engineer. He collaborated with Eugene Nalimov and provided the compression algorithm for the 6-man Nalimov Tablebases.

Marcus Kastner is a German computer chess expert and computer chess journalist. In 1999, he began publishing and editing the German computer chess magazine ChessBits.

Dr. Hermann Kaindl is an Austrian computer scientist. In 1979, he was the co-author of the chess program Merlin. He is an expert on tree-searching methods and wrote a paper on quiescence search in computer chess.

Dr. Charles Kalme (1939-2002) was a Latvian American electrical engineer and mathematician. In 1972, while at the University of Southern California, he was a team member and chess advisor of the USC CP computer program.

Radoslaw Kamowski is a Polish software developer. In 2002, he wrote the free Winboard open source chess engine Belzebub, written in Java. It is available for the PC and mobile phone.

Pradyumma (Pradu) Kannan is an aerospace engineer living in Arizona. In 2004, he wrote the chess engine Witz. In 2006, he wrote the chess engine Buzz. In 2007, he co-authored the WinBoard-compliant chess engine Dirty, the primary developer of the core engine structures and the search algorithm. He is the author of the paper, “Magic Move-Bitboard Generation in Computer Chess.”

Julio Kaplan (1950- ) is a computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the founder and CEO of Heuristic Software. In 1981, he wrote chess programs for SciSys/Saitek’s dedicated chess computers. He is the author or Superstar and Turbostar. He was later involved in the chess engines Socrates and Kasparov’s Gambit.

Peter Kappler is a chess master and an American computer chess programmer. In 2003, he wrote Grok, a private chess engine written in Java. He is a former Google executive. In 2013, he was a consultant on the film Computer Chess.

Lars Karlsson is a Swedish electrical engineer and computer scientist. In 1977, he wrote Rook, a chess program written in Z80 assembly language. It was written for the card computer Data Board 4680, produced by Karlsson’s company, Dataindustrier AB.

Thoralf Karlsson is a Swedish computer chess expert and computer chess journalist. From 1984 to 2013 he was chairman of Svenska schackdatorforeningen (SSDF), the Swedish Chess Computer Association. In 1981, he was the editor of PLY Magazine.

François Karr is a French games developer and computer chess programmer. He Is the co-author of BugChess in 2007 and the free Winboard engine, BugChess2, in 2011.

Juha Kasanen (1944-1988) was a Finnish chess player and computer scientist. In 1983, he was a co-author, along with Mika Korhonen and Timo Saari. of Shy, a mainframe chess program. It ran on a Burroughs B7800/B7900. In 1983, at the 4th World Computer Chess Championship in New York, Shy took 21st out of 22 programs, scoring 1.5 out of 5.

Larry Kaufman (1947- ) is a computer chess programmer. In 1965, he was the author of the opening book for Mac Hack VI. Since 2010, he has been associated with the Komodo chess engine.

Clemens Keck is a German computer chess aficionado. He is the opening book author of the chess engine Loop and of Cluster Toga. In 2014, he organized the Playchess All Engine Rapid Masters tournament.

Heinz van Kempen (1955- ) is a co-founder and host of Chess Engines Grand Tournament (CEGT), a chess engine rating list site. CEGT testing began in 2005.

Rod Kemper is a Dutch programmer. In 1993, along with Ed Schroeder, he helped develop the Rebel chess engine. He was responsible for Rebel’s GUI for the MS-DOS operating systems on PCs.

Ian Kennedy is a British computer programmer. In 1993, he wrote the chess program Psycho.

Peter Kent is a British computer scientist and programmer. In 1969, he started work on Alex Bell’s chess program. In 1973, he was a co-author of the chess playing program Master (Minimax algorithm Tester).

Rex Kent, along with David Lindsey, wrote a chess program called BORIS in 1978.

engines TSCP (Tom’s Simple Chess Program) , Stobor, and tChess. In 1997, he wrote TSCP as a small, open-source chess engine, designed to teach people how chess engines work. It was written in 2,258 lines of C code.

Marcel van Kervinck is a Dutch software engineer. He is the author of the chess engines Rookie, MCSP, and Floyd. He is the author of the online opening database Bookie. He also wrote pfkpk, a pretty fast KPK endgame table generator.

Louis Kessler is a former computer chess programmer who lives in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In 1975, he wrote the chess program Brute Force, which participated in the 8th and 9th North American Computer Chess Championships in 1977 and 1978). He has a web site (Louis Kessler’s Chess and Computer Chess Links) with lots of computer chess links.

Abdul Mateen Khan is a computer scientist for the UAE. In 2008, he was the lead programmer of Hydra. He is the author of the chess engines Cryptic and Shark. Cryptic runs on modern high speed multi-processor CPU. It is programmed in mixed C and Assembly Language. It is aimed to be the world's top single machine Chess Engine. Shark is network based deep search meta engine. It is based on the idea by which it reaches to depth of 25+ easily with the help of only 6 CPUs in less than a minute. Currently a dual core CPU takes more than an hour to reach to this depth.

Niyaz Khasanov is a Russian chess programmer. In 2000, he wrote the first Russian WinBoard chess engine, Ufim. It is now WinBoard and UCI-compliant, rated around 2500.

Joona Kiiski is a Finnish software developer. In 2009, he wrote Smaug, a chess engine that was a slight modification of Glauring 2.2 by Tord Romstad. He was part of the team that developed Stockfish, which also included Tod Romstad, Marco Costalba, and Gary Linscott.

Kenneth L. King is an American electrical engineer. In 1970, he developed a chess program to run on a stand-alone CAD platform IDIIOM (IDI Input-Output Machine).

Tom King is a British computer scientist. In 1995, he authored the computer chess program Francesca, written in C. In 2000, King renamed it to Francesca MAD (Manic, Aggressive, Dynamic). It is no longer in active development.

Dr. David Kirkby is a British medical physicist and author of various open source projects. In 2006, he started the ChessDB project, a chess database and GUI based on SCID (Shane’s Chess Information Database).

Dr. James M. Kister is a retired American mathematician. In 1956, he co-authored a chess program for the MANIAC I computer at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Los Alamos program was the first design of a program for a computer to play chess. The other co-authors included Paul Stein, Stan Ulam, William Walden, and Mark Wells. The game was played on a simplified 6x6 board and examined all possible moves two levels deep at the rate of 12 moves per minute.

In May 1978, David Kittinger began work on his computer chess program called MyChess after getting a copy of Microchess and decided to write his own chess program with better speed. In 1981, he wrote the chess program SAVANT. In 1985, he wrote the chess engine for Chessmaster 2000.

Dr. Eberhard Klein is a German mathematician and computer scientist. In 1972, he co-authored Samiel, a mainframe chess program, which ran on an IBM 370/168.

Marek Klonowski is a Polish computer chess programmer. In 2003, he wrote Excelsior, a WinBoard-compliant chess engine, initially written in Delphi. The program requires the .NET framework.

Stefan Knappe is a German computer chess programmer. In 1996, he wrote the private chess engine Matador, first written in Visual Basic, then updated to Matador II, written in C.

Werner Koch is a German chess programmer. In 1990, along with Thomas Schaefer, he co-wrote the chess program Patzer.

Andrew Koenig (1952- ) is an American computer scientist. In 1970, while affiliated with Columbia University, he co-authored the chess program CCCP, which ran on an IBM 360/91. The other authors included Steven Bellovin, Aron Eisenpress, and Benjamin Yalow.

Dr. Fritz Koenigshofer is an Austrian-American computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1974, he co-authored Frantz, a mainframe chess program that ran on a UNIVAC 494.

Thorsten Kohfeldt is a German computer chess programmer. In 1993, he co-authored Experimental, a chess program written in C for MS-DOS.

Urban Koistinen is a Swedish mathematician and computer scientist. In 1997, he became editor of the Swedish PLY computer chess magazine. He found a better way of computing endgame databases with a new indexing scheme and a new way to computer minimax in parallel on a standard computer.

Janne I. Kokkala is a Finnish physicist and computer scientist. In 2013, he wrote the Winboard chess engine JikChess, written in C++.

Marek Kolacz is a Polish chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the free Winboard enginer Butcher, written in C. Executables are available for MS-DOS, Windows, and Linux.

Thomas Kolarik is an American system analyst. In 2010, he wrote Nirvanachess, a free UCI-compliant chess engine written in C++.

Dr. Munjong Kolss is a German biologist and computer chess programmer. In 1997, along with his brother Muntsin Kolss, he wrote Ikarus, a chess engine written in Delphi. In 1998, it played in the 9th World Computer Chess Championship, held in Paderdorn, Germany, and took 26tg place with 2 points from 7 games. In 2006, Ikarus won the World Computer Speed Chess Championship, held in Turin.

Dr. John Kominek is an American computer scientist. In 2002, he wrote the chess program Sharky.

Johan de Koning (1964- ) is a Dutch computer chess and games programmer. In 1987, he wrote The King, a chess program written in C. He ported his program to an ARM2 RISC-processor, which was sold as a bundled chess program for the ChessMachine. His chess engine later became the chess engine for the Chessmaster 4000. He is a TASC engine programmer.

Danny Kopec (1954-2017) was an American International Master.  He is one of the world’s foremost authorities on artificial intelligence and its application to chess.  He held a Ph.D. in Machine Intelligence and was an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer and Information Systems at Brooklyn College. Kopec, along with Ivan Bratko, developed the Bratko-Kopec Test, the standard test for chess computers. In 1982, it was used to evaluate human or machine ability based on the presence or absence of certain knowledge.

Roman Korba is a German computer scientist. In 2002, he wrote Abrok, a Winboard and UCI-compliant chess engine written in C/C++. The latest version in Abrok 5.0.

Mika Korhonen (1958- ) is a Finnish programmer and chess composer. He is the author of one of the world’s first chess problem solving programs, Mika’s Mate, for the Apple II. In 1983, he was a co-author of Shy, a mainframe chess program written in Algol. The other authors were Juha Kasanen and Timo Saari.

Evgeniy Korniloff is a Russian computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of OBender (formerly Qchess), a free Winboard open source chess engine written in C. It is the oldest Russian WinBoard engine.

Igor Korshunov is a Belorussian chess programmer. In 2000, he wrote WildCat, a WinBoard and UCI-compliant chess engine, written in C++. WildCat won the 1st Computer Chess Championship of CIS Countries in 2008. In 2010, he wrote the open source chess engine Murka.

Tim Kosse is a German computer scientist. In 2010, he wrote Octochess, a UCI-compliant open source chess engine, written in C++.

Konstantin Kosteniuk is involved in designing an industrial robot to play chess. He created The Chess Terminator and CHESSka robots to play chess. CHESSka was the first chess robot to beat grandmasters in blitz chess.

Alan Kotok (1942-2006) was a freshman at MIT in 1959 when he started working a chess-playing program while a student of Professor John McCarthy.  Kotak, along with Elwyn Berlekamp (1940- ), Michael Lieberman, Charles Niessen, and Robert A. Wagner, started with Bernstein’s program, then added alpha-beta pruning to minmax at McCarthy’s suggestion to improve the plausible move generator.  They wrote in Fortran, and a single move could take five to twenty minutes to complete. Their chess-playing program ran on an IBM 7090 mainframe computer. Kotok went on to become one of DEC’s leading computer designers (chief architect of the PDP-10), and created the first video game and the gaming joystick.

Dr. Peter Kouwenhoven (1959-2015) was a Dutch computer scientist. In 1978, he wrote the chess program Alder, which ran on a PDP-11/45. In 1981, along with Dap Hartmann, he co-authored Dappet, a chess program written in Turbo Pascal and Assembler.

Attila Kovács is a Hungarian computer chess programmer. In 1985, he wrote Kempelen, a chess program written for the 6502 and 68000 based home computers like the Commodore 64 and Atari ST. The program was commercialized by Sierra Online in 1986.

E. Kozdrowski, along with D. Cooper, wrote a chess program called COKO in 1971.

Pawel Koziol is a Polish chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Hopeless and CCCP. In 2008, he co-authored Glass, a UCI-compliant chess engine. He is also the author of Rodent, an open source chess engine, rated around 2900.

Dr. Hans-Joachim Kraas is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the co-author, along with Guenther Schruefer, of the chess program Bobby, Bobby II, and Doctor. In 1993, Bobby won the International Paderborn Computer Chess Championship.

Jan Krabbenbos is a Dutch computer scientist and software developer. From 2012 to 2014, he was the chairman of the Dutch Computer Chess Federation (CSVN).

Dr. Lawrence (Larry) Krakauer is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. During the late 1960s, he contributed to the Mac Hack VI chess program. In 1968, he developed the 2D graphics board for the DEC 340 display used for the main system console of the PDP-6. This was the first GUI of a chess program.

Oliver Kraus is a German electronics engineer and software developer. He created the Little Rook Chess dedicated open source chess program, written in C and developed to run on an Arduino Uno single board hardware.

Thomas Kreitmair is a German electrical engineer and former chess programmer. He co-authored, along with Matthias Engelbach, Schach 3.0 in the early 1990s, written in x86 assembly. In 1994, Schach 3.0 won the International Paderborn Computer Chess Championship.

Jonathan Kreuzer is an American computer scientist and games programmer. In 2003, he wrote Slow Chess, a WinBoard and UCI-compliant chess engine.

Alexander Kronrod (1921-1986) was a Soviet scientist. He developed a general recursive search engine that was used in the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) chess program. His ITEP chess program beat the Stanforc chess program (Kotok-McCarthy program) After the match, Konrod lost his directorship at ITEP and his professorship because of complaints from the physics users that ITEP resources were being wasted on chess.

Kees de Kruif is a Dutch computer scientist. In 1976 he developed Killer, a chess program that ran on a PDP-11.

Kiril Kryukov is a Russian computer scientist. He maintains the Kirr’s Chess Engine Comparison (KCEC) engine rating list and is the administrator of the Russian KasparovChess computer chess forum. He is a founding member of the CCRL (Computer Chess Rating List) and the administrator of the Endgame Tablebases subforum at CCRL.

Hans Kuijf is a Dutch computer scientist and computer games programmer. In the late 1980s, he and his brother, Nico, developed NICBase, a chess database program. It was originally designed for the Atari ST, but soon ported to the IBM PC. In 1993, the two brothers developed TascBase chess database.

Jan Kuipers wrote a chess program called TINY CHESS 86 in 1979.

Adam Kujawski is a Polish computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1994, he wrote Joanna, the first Polish chess program. It is a free Winboard-compatible engine.

Alexander Kure is an Austrian computer chess programmer. In 2002, he supported Brutus, an FPGA-based chess entity. He was the opening book author of the chess program Hydra and the commercial chess program Fritz.

Bradley C. Kuszmaul is an American computer scientist and programmer. He is the co-author of the chess programs StarTech and Socrates. The StarTech massively parallel chess program, running on a 512-processor Connection Machine CM-5 supercomputer, tied for third place at the 1993 ACM International Computer Chess Championship.

Henk Kuyer is a Dutch software developer and chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess program Ziggy, and the author of the chess program October.

Marek Kwiatkowski (1961- ) is a Polish chess programmer and an International Master for FIDE compositions. He is the author of Fancy, a Windows GUI for Popeye and Stockfish.

Don Laabs is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. He was a developer at Mindscape and Software Toolworks and was involved in the creation of various Chessmaster versions, Majestic Chess, and Disney’s Aladdin Chess Adventures.

Marc Lacrosse (1961-2009) was a Belgian radiologist. He was an opening book author for the Fruit chess program, written by Fabian Letouzey.

Matthew Lai is a Canadian electrical engineer, computer scientist, and chess programmer. He is the primary author of the chess engine Brainless. He also created an artificial intelligence machine called Giraffe that taught itself to play chess by evaluating positions more like humans and in an entirely different way to conventional chess engines.

Richard Lang (1955- ) is a British computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Cyrus (written in 1981 for an early Sinclair computer), Psion (written in 1983), and ChessGenius (first released in 1992).

Michel Langeveld is a Dutch computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Nullmover and TSCP Gothic. He also helped in the development of Bookbuilder, a commercial chess program for analyzing chess opening positions and to build engine opening books.

Ben-Hur Carlos Vieira Langoni, Jr. is a Brazilian software engineer. He is the author of the UCI-compliant source chess engine RedQueen, written in C++.

James A. Lank is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1981, he, and Lloyd Lank, co-authored the mainframe chess program Cube, which ran on a Cray-1. The program was written in Fortran IV.

Lloyd Lank co-wrote the chess program CUBE in 1981 with his brother, James.

Andrea Lanza is an Italian software developer. In 2005, he wrote Matilde, a free WinBoard-compliant chess engine, written in Visual Basic and later ported to C++.

Nicolas Lassabe (1979- ) is a French computer scientist. In 2004, he co-authored Tempo, an experimental chess engine.

Tor Lattimore is an Australian computer scientist. In 2003, he wrote SEE, a WinBoard-compliant chess engine written in C++. It is rated about 2300.

Mike Leany is an American programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Knightmare, Zilch, and Vapor Chess (for 64-bit versions of Linux and Windows).

Kevin Leaville (1940-1994) was an American electronics engineer. In 1984, he ported Sargon II to the Intel 8086 to run on the IBM PC under MS-DOS.

Lonny Lebahn is an American computer scientist. In 1974, he co-authored Black Knight, a chess program written in Fortran and ran on the UNIVAC 1100 series of computers.

Mark Lefler is an American computer games and chess programmer. In 1991, he wrote Now, a chess program written in Pascal running on PCs with the MS-DOS operating system. He is a member of the Komodo team. In 2007, he founded the Chess Programming Wiki.

Charles Leiserson is an American computer scientist. He is the co-author of the parallel chess programs StarTech, Star Socrates, and Cilkchess.

Fabian Letouzey is a French computer chess and games programmer. He developed the chess programs Fruit (released in 2005), Chess-64, and Senpai (released in 2014).

Bruce Leverett (1952- ) is a software eningeer. He wrote a chess program called LEVERETT CP in 1972.

Robert Levinson is an American computer scientist at the University of California – Santa Cruz. In 1989, he created Morph, a research chess program that learns to play chess from its experience only.

Dr. David Levy (1945- ) is a Scottish International Master (1969) who, in 1968, made a $2,500 wager that no chess computer could beat him in ten years. He won his bet from Don Michie, John McCarthy, Seymour Pappert, and Ed Kozdrowicki. He has authored more than 40 books on chess and computers. He is president of the International Computer Games Association (ICGA). In 1978 he won his wager by defeating Chess 4.7 with 3 wins and 1 draw. He was the first International Master to give up a draw to a computer program. He could have made the bet that no chess computer could beat him in 20 years. In 1973, Levy said, “I am tempted to speculate that a computer program will not gain the International Master title before the turn of the century and that the idea of an electronic World Champion belongs only in the pages of a science fiction book.” In 1981, he created the chess program PHILIDOR. It was in 1989 that he finally lost to a computer when Deep Thought defeated Levy by the score of 4 wins and no losses or draws. He earned a PhD in artificial intelligence from Maastrich University in 2007.  His dissertation was entitled, "Intimate Relationships with Artificial Partners" (sex with robots).

Dr. Kevin Lew is a software architect and computer scientist. He is a member of the ChessBrain team. ChessBrain is a chess-playing entity that consists of a virtual chess supercomputer of over 2,000 Internet-connected machines.

Leonid Liberman is a Canadian chess programmer. He is the author of LL Chess, a chess program with focus on solving mates. It was written in assembly.
Dr. Michael Lieberman is an American physicist and electrical engineer. At MIT, he was a member of the chess group that wrote the chess program for the IBM 7090, which later evolved to the Kotok-MCCarthy Chess Program.

Tom Likens is an American electrical engineer. In 2003, he wrote Djinn, a free Winboard chess engine written in C++.

Anton Lindenmair is a German blind software developer. In2006, he wrote AliChess, a UCI-compliant chess engine for Playchess.

David Lindsey is an American early microprocessor ches programmer. In 1978, he, along with Rex Kent, wrote the program which appeard in the commercial dedicated Boris chess computer, manufactured by Applied Concepts.

Gary Linscott is a computer scientist. In 2007, he wrote Garbochess, a UCI-compliant open source chess engine, written in C#. He also wrote Garboches – JS, a strong javascript chess engine using WebWorkers. He is the primary author of the Stockfish Testing Framework dubbed Fishtest, written in Python.

Dr. Torsten Linss (1967- ) is a German mathematician. He contributed to Popeye, the open source program for solving chess problems. He is involved in developing chess problem related software, such as databases for chess problems.

Panayiotis Lipiridis is a Greek information technology engineer and web developer. In 2016, he co-authored Chess-at-nite, a free open source Winboard chess engine, written in C/C++.

Phil Lisiecki is an American computer scientist and programmer. He was a member of the team in developing the Cilkchess computer chess program.

In 1968, Barbara Jane Huberman Liskov (1939- ) wrote a Ph.D. thesis (A Program to Play Chess End Games) at Stanford University that included a computer program that played certain chess endgames with pieces versus a lone king. This included endgames of King vs Queen, King vs Rook, King vs 2 Bishops, and King vs Bishop and Knight.

Luca Lissandrello is an Italian chess programmer. In 2010, he wrote Neurone, a WinBoard-compatible chess engine written in Visual Basic .NET.

Lex Loep is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 1987, he wrote LChess, also called Schaakmeester, running under DOS. In 1992, he established Lokasoft, a Dutch chess software developing company.

Dominique Longbien is a French computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote Adam, a free Winboard/UCI chess engine written in C++.

Steven (Steve) Lopez is a computer chess software collector and computer chess expert. He is the author of several chess tutorials. He ran the ChessBase USA hotline for several years. He now works for ChessOK, the brand name for Convekta Ltd.

Frederic Louguet is a French computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Chess Wizard and Raptor. From 1992 to 1997, he was editor of the French computer chess magazine La Puce Echiqueenne.

Jan Louwman (1924-2002) was a Dutch computer chess expert. In 1980, he was co-founder of the Dutch Computer Chess Federation (CSVN). He was a member of the Rebel team. Rebel is a chess program developed by Ed Schroder.

Bruno Lucas is a French software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1997, he wrote Dragon, a brute force chess engine.

Dr. Kai von Luck is a German computer scientist. In 1981, he co-wrote N.N., an experimental chess system written in LISP.

Matthias Luescher is a Swiss computer scientist. In 1998, he wrote Chessterfield, a free chess engine written in C++.

Harald Luessen is a German software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote Elephant, a WinBoard compatible chess engine.

Dr. Herve Luga is a French computer scientist. He co-authored Tempo, an experimental chess engine using an artificial neuronal network as an evaluation function.

Stef Luijten is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote Wing, a WinBoard-compliant chess engine, written in C++. He also wrote Winglet.

Mateusz Luksik is a Polish computer scientist. In 2002, he wrote Atak, a chess engine written in C.

Christopher Lutz in a German chess grandmaster and was chess consultant of the Hydra project. In 1989, he co-authored Paul, a chess program written in Turbo Pascal. In 1981, he wrote Bernie, a chess program written in Turbo C and 68000 Assembly on an Atari ST.

George Lyapko is a Hungarian software developer. In 2000, he wrote Bestia, a chess engine written in Pascal and compiled with Delphi. He has also written various PGN and WinBoard related tools to run under MS-DOS.

Chao Ma is a Chinese computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2009, he wrote Cmchess, a UCI-compatible chess engine that applies a parallel SMP search.

Andreas Mader is an Austrian computer chess expert and tester. In 1997, he was one of the founders of the Computer Chess Club (CCC). He is the primary editor of the computer chess periodicals Modul and PC Schach.

Dr. Vladimir Makhnychev is a Russian computer scientist. He is a co-developer of the Aquariam GUI, a commercial Windows GUI by ChessOK that supports UCI and WinBoard engines. He was a primary contributor to the 7-men Lomonosov Tablebases.

Ivan Maklyakov is a Russian chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Uralochka, FreeChess, and the UCI-compliant FreeChessII.

Odd Gunnar Malin is a Norwegian software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote PolarChess, written in C++. He is the author of NorBase, a game-database program.

Jeff Mallett is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1991, he wrote Innovation, a chess program written in C. Innovation was incorporated in several commercial chess teaching products.

Stefano Malloggi is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2006, he wrote Chaturanga, a WinBoard compatible chess engine.

Thomas Mally (1943-2013) was an Austrain computer chess expert and computer chess programmer. In 1992, he wrote Wappler, a chess program running on an IBM PC under MS-DOS with its own GUI. He was editor of Modul and PC Schach.

Gary Maltzen (1943-2007) was an American computer scientist and early chess programmer. He, along with Ken Sogge, Fred Prouse, and Lonny Lebahn, wrote a chess program called Black Knight in 1974. It was written in Fortran and ran on the UNIVAC 1100 series of computers.

Sebastien Mametz is a French computer scientist. In 2003, he wrote PixChess, a private chess engine written in Java.

Ronald de Man is a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist. He is the author of the chess engines Sjaak and CFish.

Edoardo Manino is an Italian chess player and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the open source engines ProChess, written in Visual Basic, and the chess engine RamJet, written in C.

Alexey Manjakhin is a Russian physicist and computer chess programmer. In 1988, he co-authored the chess program Centaur, which won the 1st Soviet Computer Chess Championship in 1988. He helped develop Chess Assistant.

Timothy (Tim) Mann is an American computer scientist and programmer. He is the creator of XBoard and WinBoard, originally GUIs for GNU Chess.

Dr. Valavan Manohararajah is a Sri Lanka born, Canadian computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1996, he authored the chess program Rajah.

Mark Manyen is an American software developer and computer and video games programmer. In the late 1980s, he was a lead programmer on most of the early Chessmaster series software.

Andres Manzannares-Campillo is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote Atlas, a UCI-compliant chess engine.

Eric Marathee is a French computer chess programmer. In 1990, he wrote Small-C, which later evolved into Gibbon.

Julien Marcel is a French jurist and computer chess programmer. In 2007, he wrote the UCI-compatible chess engine Predateur, written in Pascal. .

Henrik Markarian is an American computer engineer. In 1991, he was project manager of the Chessmaster 3000 at Software Toolworks. In 1999, he programmed the Chessmaster II for the PlayStation, published by Mindscape.

Sergei Markoff is a Russian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2015, he wrote the chess program SmarThink, written in C.

Roland Marquis is a Swiss software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote Marquis, a WinBoard-compatible chess engine, written in C++.

Anthony (Tony) Marsland was the author of the chess program WITA, which later became AWIT.

Ruud Martin is a Dutch technical engineer and programmer. In 2009, he founded Phoenix Chess Systems. He is responsible for the Mephisto compatible module sets Resurrection, Resurrection II, and Reflection. He is chairman of the Dutch Computer Chess Federation (CSVN).

Heiner Marxen is a German computer scientist and programmer. He is the author of Chest, a program for solving orthodox chess problems.

Gianluigi Masciulli is an Italian computer chess programmer. He is a founding member of the Italian Computer Chess Association. In 1999, he wrote the chess engine Golem, written in C.

Youri Matiounine is an American computer games programmer. In 2014, he wrote Fizbo, a UCI-compliant chess engine.

Srdja Matovic is a German computer scientist and software developer. He is the author of various chess programs under the name Zeta.

Steve Maughan is a British management consultant. He is the author of the UCI-compatible engine Monarch and Maverick.

Thomas Mayer is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 200, he wrote the chess engine Quark.

John Maynard Smith (1920-2004) was a British biologist. In 1961, he created Smith One-Move Analyzer (SOMA).

Thomas McBurney is an Australian software developer and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Deep BASIC and Kanguruh.

John McCarthy (1927-2011) was a professor at Stanford. He invented the alpha-beta search function in 1955 that was eventually used in chess programs. In 1955, he coined the word Artificial Intelligence and is considered the father of artificial intelligence. It was McCarthy’s students that developed the first computer program to convincingly play chess. It ran initially on an IBM 704 computer (later, an IBM 709 and 7090) and incorporated McCarthy’s version of an alpha-beta pruning scheme to reduce the number of positions that had to be considered. The IBM 704 was one of the last vacuum tube computers. In 1965, McCarthy visited the Soviet Union.  There, a group at the Moscow Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), led by Alexander Kronrod, challenged his chess program (Kotok-McCarthy program) to a match with their chess program, later called KAISSA.  A match was held over nine months in 1966-67.  The Soviet program won the match 3-1 (two wins and two draws). The Kotok-McCarthy program ran on an IBM 7090 computer. The Soviet chess program ran on an M-20 computer.

Christopher McConnell is an American computer scientist. In the 1990s, while a PhD student at Carnegie Mellon University, he worked with Dr. Hans Berliner on the chess program Hitech.

Scott McDonald is an American chess master who worked with David Kittinger on the programs for the dedicated Novag computers in the early 1980s.

Rob McDonell is an Australian computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote the chess program KChess.

Peter McKenzie is a New Zealand computer scientist. He is the author of the chess engines LambChop and Warp.

Matt McKnight is an American software developer. In 2003, he wrote the WinBoard-compatible engine Dorky, written in C and C++.

Alan Mead is an American electrical engineer from Texas. He is co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Applied Concepts, founded in March 1977. He was involved in designing the hardware of the first Boris machine in 1978.

Kerwin Medina is an American computer scientist, software developer, and computer chess programmer. In 2009, he assumed the development of the chess engine Thinker.

Vladimir Medvedev is a Russian games and chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote the chess program GreKo.

Daniel Mehrmann is a German computer chess programmer. In 2003, he wrote Homer, a UCI-compliant chess engine, written in C.

John Merlino is an American games programmer. He was a programmer on several versions of the Chessmaster series.

Maarten van der Meulen is a Dutch computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines m1.0 and Arachne.

Stefan Meyr-Kahlen is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote Shredder, a very strong chess engine.

Donald Michie (1923-2007) was a British researcher and computer pioneer. While at Oxford in the late 1940s, he began exploring ways of developing “paper machines” that could play chess. In 1948, he helped develop a “paper machine” to play chess, called Machiavelli.

Tomasz Michniewski is a Polish computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Tytan, written in C++.

Jacques Middlecoff wrote a chess program called SPOC (Selective Pruning Optimization Chess) in 1984. It was a state-of-the-art chess program written in 8086 assembly language for the IBM PC with a USCF rating of 1700.

Gabor Mihaly is a Hungarian software engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Tigran.

Karl-Heinz Milaster is a German computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess computer and program called Chess Brain. In 1996, he wrote the commercial chess program Schach!

Anastasios Milikas is a computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote the UCI-compatible chess engine AICE (Artificially Intelligent Chess Engine).

Donald V. Miller is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. In the late 1970s, he developed the mainframe program Xenarbor, written in Fortran.

Adrian Millett is a games programmer. He developed the Windows GUI for Chess Genius 4.

Ben Mittman, along with Monty Newborn, organized the first U.S. Computer Chess Championship was held in the Rhinelander Gallery at the Hilton Hotel in New York in 1970.

Maurizio Monge is an Italian mathematician and computer scientist. He is the author of the chess engines RattateChess and RattatAjedrez.

Warren Montgomery, along with Larry Harris, wrote a chess program called DARTMOUTH CP in 1973.

George Moore is an American electrical engineer. In 1972, he helped write MCU CP chess program when he was associated with the Mississippi State University. It ran on a 36-bit UNIVAC 1106.

Jose Manuel Moran is a Spanish computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Ruy Lopez and RuyDos.

Bruce Moreland is an American computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the chess engine Ferret. He is the author of the open source program Gerbil.

Chris Moreton is a British computer scientist. In 1992, he co-authored the chess engine Rival. Manlio Morini is an Italian software developer. In 1998, he developed the chess engine Joker, written in C++.

Rod Morison is an American computer scientist. He is the co-author of Waycool, written in 1986 as a massive parallel chess program.

Alex Morozov is a Ukrainian chess programmer. He is the author of the chess program Booot.

Dmitry Morozov is a software developer. He is the author of the Internet-Chess-Killer, a program for automatic engine play on Internet chess servers. In 2011, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Quazar, written in C++.

Jim Morris is an American early computer chess programmer. In 1974, he helped develop the chess program KChes6 at the University of Louisville. It ran on an HP 2000C.

Frans Morsch (1954- ) is a Dutch computer chess programmer. He is the author of various dedicated chess computers and PC-programs. In 1983, he wrote Nona, written in 6502 assembly language to run on an Apple IIe.

Ferdinand Mosca is a Filipino games and chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Deuterium and multiple chess variant playing programs. In 2016, he released his Chess Game Analyzer GUI.

Edmund Moshammer is a chess programmer. He was involved in the development of the chess engines CPW-Engine and Glass Chess Engine.

John Moussouris is an American physicist. In the 1970s, he was involved in developing CHEOPS (Chess-orientated Processing System).

John Mucci (1942-2010) was an American electrical engineer and former vice president at Thinking Machines Corporation. He provided the managerial backing for StarTech running on the CM-5 Connection Machine.

Gabriele Mueller is a Swiss computer scientist and programmer. In 1998, he was the author of the Crafty clones, Voyager, LaGrande, and LaPetite.

Harm Geert Muller is a Dutch physicist and computer chess programmer. In 1981, he wrote the chess program Usurpator for the 6800 and 6502 8-bit microprocessor. He also wrote a blitz chess program for the PDP-11.

Roberto Munter is a computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Ippolit, IvanHoe, Deep Saros 2, and Elektro.

Mridul Muralidharan is an Indian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of Ceng, MessChess, and Witchess.

Ron Murawski is an American computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the WinBoard-compatible chess engine Horizon.

Hugh S. Myers is an American professional programmer and web developer. He is the author of the ICC chess client, Blitzin. He wrote the device drivers for the Saitek PC Auto Chessboard. He has published various PGN tools in Perl and Python.

Peter Mysliwietz is a German computer games researcher and programmer. He is the co-author of the massive parallel chess program Zugzwang, and the single processor program Alpha I.

Amindo Naarden is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1996, he wrote the chess engine AChess.

Luca Naddel is an Italian computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine GUI Uragano 3D and PICcolino.

Eugene Nalimov is a Russian computer scientist and chess programmer. In the late 1980s, he wrote Siberian Chess, a shareware chess program. He is the author of the Nalimov endgame tablebases for up to 6 pieces.

Swaminathan Natarajan is computer chess aficionado and tester. He is the co-author of the Strategic Test Suite, a series of themed test suites designed to evaluate chess engines.

Alexander Naumov is a Serbian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2003, he authored Naum, which soon evolved into one of the top commercial chess engines.

Pallav Nawani is an Indian electrical engineer. He is the author of the open source chess engine Natwarial.

Sandro Necchi is a computer chess expert and opening book author. He worked for MChess and is a book author of Shredder.

Sergei Nefedov is a Russian software developer. In 2003, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Anechka.

Harry Nefkens (1952- ) is computer chess expert. He is the co-author of the programs Pion, Dutch, and Much.

Harry Nelson, along with Robert Hyatt and Albert Gower, developed CRAY BLITZ at the University of Southern Mississippi in 1980.

Ron Nelson, and engineer and programmer, developed a chess program for an Altair 8800 microcomputer with an Intel 8080 CPU in 1976. He went to work for Fidelity Electronics. He, along with Sidney Samole, invented the first commercial electronic computer, the Chess Challenger I.

Tihamer Nemes (1895-1960) was a Hungarian mechanical and electrical engineer. In 1949, he designed and constructed an electro-mechanical chess machine.

Monroe (Monty) Newborn (1938- ), along with Ben Mittman, organized the first U.S. Computer Chess Championship was held in the Rhinelander Gallery at the Hilton Hotel in New York in 1970. In 1971, along with George Arnold, he created a chess program called OSTRICH. In 1983, Monty Newborn was elected president of the International Computer Chess Association (ICCA). He was its president from 1983 to 1986.

Allen Newell (1927-1992) was a research scientist at the RAND Corporation. In March 1955, he published an article called "The Chess Machine: An Example of Dealing with a Complex Task of Adaptation." The modern general-purpose computer was characterized as the embodiment of a three-point philosophy: (1) There shall exist a way of computing anything computable; (2) The computer shall be so fast that it does not matter how complicated the way is; and (3) Man shall be so intelligent that he will be able to discern the way and instruct the computer. He helped develop the chess program CP-1 (NSS) at Carnegie Tech with the help of Cliff Shaw and Herbert Simon.  Their NSS program was the first chess program to be written in a high-level language (IPL-IV) and took about an hour to make a move.  The program combined algorithms that searched for good moves with heuristics that captured well-known chess strategies. Its most important innovation was the alpha-beta tree search algorithm. The way it works is that a computer evaluates a move and starts working on its second move. As soon as a single line shows that it will return a lower value than the first move, it can terminate the search. You can now chop off large parts of the search tree without affecting the final results. The NSS chess program ran on a JOHNNIAC (named after John von Neumann), an early computer built by RAND Corporation, first built in 1953.

Daniel Newman is an American computer scientist and information manager. He is the author of the WinBoard-compatible chess engine Shrike, written in C++.

Russell Newman is a British software engineer and co-author of the Rival chess engine.

Stephane Nguyen is a French computer chess programmer. In 1998, he wrote the chess engine Jester.

Arno Nickel is a German chess publisher and organizer of online Freestyle chess tournaments. He is general manager of InfinityChess.

Jens Baek Nielsen is a Danish computer chess writer. In 1995, he wrote the chess program Dabbaba, written in Turbo C.

Charles Niessen is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist. In the early 1960s, he was part of a team at MIT that wrote a chess program for the IBM 7090, which later evolved to the Kotok-McCarthy chess program.

Thomas Nietsche wrote a chess program called ORWELL in 1976. In 1980, Nietsche, along with Elmer Henine, programmed THE BRIKETT, the first German chess computer on the market.

Thomas Nitsche is a German mathematician and computer scientist. He is a former computer chess programmer. In 1975, he wrote the chess program Orwell, which played in the first German computer chess tournament.

Phokham Nonava is a Swiss computer scientist and senior software engineer. He is the author of the open source chess engines Flux and Pulse.

Andreas Nowatzyk is an American physicist and computer scientist. He was a member of the Deep Thought team working on evaluation and evaluation tuning.

Kevin O’Connell is an Irish chess consultant, columnist, and writer. In 1979, along with David Levy, he founded Philidor Software. In 1981, he founded Intelligent Software, developing dedicated chess computers and chess software for home users.

Adam Oellermann is a South African software developer. He is the author of Blikskottel.

Jack O’Keefe (1930-2008) was an American chess historian. In 1973, he was a team member and chess consultant of the chess program CHAOS at the University of Michigan.

Marius Olafsson is an Icelandic computer scientist. In 1982, he was a co-author of the chess program Phoenix.

Eric Oldre is an American web developer and software engineer. In 2004, he wrote Latista, renamed Sinobyl in 2008. In 2014, he released the open source chess engine NoraGrace, written in C#.

Lourenco de Oliveira, Jr., is a Brazilian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Capivara.

Vincent Ollivier is a French computer scientist. He is the author of the chess engines Purple Haze and Little Wing.

Jaap van Oosterwijk-Bruyn (1924-2003) was a Dutch mathematician. In the 1980s, he was the first chairman of the Dutch Computer Chess Federation.

Grant Osborne is a British computer chess programmer. In 2003, he wrote the WinBoard chess engine AtlanChess.

Ian Osgood is an American software engineer. He is the author of FCP (Forth Chess Program). In the 1990s, he wrote the bughouse support in the Free Internet Chess Server (FICS).

Yuri Osipov is a Russian chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Strelka and Belka.

Emil Ostensen is a Norwegian computer scientist. In 2016, he wrote the chess engine Kholin, written in C.

Peter Osterlund is a Swedish computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of MLChess, CuckooChess, and Texel.

Steve Otto is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1986, he was a co-author of the massive parallel chess program Waycool.

Wolfgang Paehtz is a German former chess programmer. In 1987, he was involved in the development of the Chess-Master Diamond.

Mathieu Page is a Canadian computer chess programmer. In 2003, he wrote the chess engine MatMo, written in C++.

Marco Pagnoncelli is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote the chess engine Cyber Pagno.

Rahman Paidar is an Iranian computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote the strong chess engine Ktulu, which is commercially distributed via Lokasoft.

Andrew Palay is an American mathematician and computer scientist. He was involved in the development of Hitech with early design issues and implemented the opening book.

Salvador Pallares-Bejarano is a Spanish computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the UCI-compatible chess engine Clarabit.

Marco Pampaloni is an Italian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2013, he wrote Napoleon, a UCI-compliant open source chess engine, written in C++.

James Parker is an American electrical engineer. For several years, he worked with David Kittinger on WChess, which was created in 1994.

Jim Parry is a Canadian computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1974, he was a co-author of the mainframe program Ribbit, written in Fortran that ran on a Honeywell 66/65 36-bit mainframe computer.

Gian-Carlo Pascutto is a Belgian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Sjeng and Deep Sjeng.

John Pasta (1918-1981) was an American computer scientist. He is considered an early chess programmer, co-developing the MANIAC I chess program.

Arkadiusz Paterek is a Polish computer scientist. In 2005, he wrote the chess engine Gosu. Rafael Pena is a Mexican computer chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote the chess engine Fafis, first written in C#.

John Penner is a Canadian computer chess programmer. He is the author of pChess for Mac OS and Chess Meister for the iPad.

Doug Penrod began Computer Chess Newsletter in 1977. It was the forerunner of the ICCA Journal. He implemented the 1st microcomputer chess tournament at the 2nd West Coast Computer Faire in San Jose, California.

Lance Perkins is a software developer and chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote the chess engine Thinker.

Artem Petakov is a Ukrainian-born, American computer scientist and software engineer. In 2001, he wrote the experimental chess engine Goich.

Chris Peters is an American electrical engineer and computer scientist from Washington State. In 1980, he wrote a chess program called Clash, written in Fortran IV.

Jovan Petronic (1964- ) is a Serbian International Master (1991). From 1992 to 2001, he was director of the Yugoslav Chess Federation Computer Center and a Yugoslav national coach. He is chairman of the FIDE Computer Chess Committee. He is a FIDE senior trainer.

Jonatan Pettersson is a Swedish computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Mediocre, written in Java.

Thomas Petzke is a German computer scientist. He is the author of the chess engines mACE, written in Free Pascal, and iCE, written in C++.

Jochen Peussner is a German computer scientist, software developer, and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Neurologic and DisasterArea.

Karl Pevny is an Austrian computer chess programmer. In 1993, he wrote the chess engine Magellan.

Roland Pfister is a German computer chess programmer. In 1996, he wrote the chess engine Patzer.

Balint Pfiegel is a Hungarian computer scientist. In 2012, he wrote Portish, a .Net port of Stockfish written in C#.

Frank Phillips is a British computer chess programmer. He is the author of the private chess engine Searcher.

R. Kevin Phillips is a Canadian computer scientist. In 1990, he co-authored the chess program KC Chess, written in Turbo Pascal to run under MS-DOS computers.

Ilari Pihajisto is a Finnish computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Sloppy and Cute Chess.

Richard Pijl is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines The Baron and Crashtest Dummy.

Volker Pittlik is a German computer chess aficionado. In 1999, he founded the Winboard Forum and was an early WinBoard promoter.

John Poduska is an American computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. In 1981, he wrote Chaturanga, a chess program written in Pascal.

Stefan Pohl is a German computer chess aficionado and tester. He maintains the SPCC (Stefan Pohl Computer Chess) computer chess site with top engine tournaments with long thinking time.

Alexander Pokrovski is a Russian chess programmer. In 1988, he wrote the chess program Algir.

Robert Pope is an American computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote the chess engine Beaches, written in C++.

Fred Popowich is a Canadian AI researcher and computer scientist. In the early 1980s, he co-authored the experimental chess program Parabelle, written in C.

Edtlef (Elvis) Pordzik (1952-2003) was a German computer chess expert. He was editor in chief of the German ChessBits computer chess magazine. He was the author of the Shredder 4 Opening Book.

Ryan Porter is an American mathematician, computer scientist, and software developer. While at MIT, he was a member of the team in developing the Cilkchess computer chess program.

Rudolf Posch is an Austrian computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the freeware open source chess program RDChess, written in Delphi.

Olivier Poudade is a French computer programmer. In 2015, he released his chess engine Bootchess. In 2016, he release his chess engine ChessLin.

Jurgen Precour is a German software developer. In 2015 he joined the team that develops and maintains the dedicated chess computer PicoChess.

Kenneth Presley is an American computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1974, he helped develop the chess program Kches.

Shaun Press is a software developer. He has written several chess progams, including Vanilla Chess (VChess), BChess, and Fencer.

Marcus Prewarski is an American software developer. He wrote the UCI-compliant chess engines DrunkedMaster and Diablo.

Robert Prinsen is a Britsh chess programmer. In 1974, a developed a chess program called A16chs, which ran on an Alpha 16 minicomputer.

Dietrich G. Prinz (1903-1989) had a Ph.D. in Philosophy whose teachers included Einstein and Planck. He was the author of the first chess playing program for a general-purpose computer (the Mark 1 Manchester Ferranti). The program first ran in November 1951. The limitations of the first computers did not allow for a whole game of chess to be programmed. Prinz could only program mate-in-two positions. Prinz also wrote the first Artificial Intelligence (AI) program.

Harald Prokop is a German computer scientist. He is a co-author of the computer chess program Cilkchess.

Tom Pronk is a Dutch computer scientist and professional software engineer. He was on the team that developed the chess engines Dutch, Much, and Prochess.

Fred Prouse is an American computer scientist and early chess programmer. In 1974, he was the primary author of the chess program Black Knight, written in Fortran that ran on the UNIVAC 1100 series of computers.

Kamil Przybyla is a Polish software developer. In 2003, he wrote the chess engine Enigma, written in C.

Edward Quigley is an American mathematician and computer scientist. In 1978, he wrote QChess for the PDP-8 in BASIC.

Frank Quisinsky is a German computer chess aficionado. In 1999, along with Volker Pittlik, he founded the Winboard Forum.

James Quon (1968-2010) was an American computer scientist. He was involved in the research on evolutionary computer chess, and supported Blondie25, an evolutionary chess program.

Mike Rackay is an American computer scientist. In 1972, he co-authored MSU CP, which ran on a 36-bit UNIVAC 1106.

Vasik Rajlich (1971- ) was born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1971 to Czech parents. He is an International Master and the creator of Rybka chess engine. He grew up in Prague, then returned to the United States as a student, graduated from MIT. His father teaches computer science in Detroit. His mother is a mathematician. Two of his brothers are computer scientists and a third brother is a medical doctor. In 2011, Rybka, the strongest computer engine in the world, and it creator, Vasik Rajlich, were banned from all future World Computer Chess championship tournaments until the program no longer contained derivatives of other chess engine programs. Rajlich was given a lifetime ban by the International Computer Games Association (ICGA).

George Rajna is a Hungarian-Israeli physicist and computer scientist. In 1974, he co-authored, with B. Almasai, the chess program PAPA, which participated in the 1st World Computer Chess Championship in 1974.

M. C. Rakaska wrote a chess program that played on an IBM PC in 1981. This is probably the first chess games running in MS-DOS. The game featured only text-mode graphics. The chess board and the pieces were drawn using ASCII characters.

Paul Ramsteijn is a Dutch economist and computer chess programmer. In 1982, he wrote Pachera, a chess program for the TRS-80, first written in Pascal.

Keith Randall is an American computer scientist. He was co-author of MIT’s first Cilk-Chess program, Star Socrates.

Joachim Rang is a German computer chess expert. In 2005, he was the main tester of the chess engine Fruit. He tuned parameters, tested evaluation and search features, and made suggestions for further development.

Ehsan Rashid is a Pakistani programmer. He is the author of Glauring, and the Stockfish derivative DON.

David Rasmussen is a Danish computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the chess engine Chezzz.

Ulf Rathsman is a Swedish engineer and former professional computer chess programmer. In 1977, he wrote the chess program Dark Horse, written in Fortran and running on a CDC 6600 mainframe computer and a Univac 1100.

Wolfgang Rausch is a German software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1993, he co-authored the chess program Viktor 2.

Walter Ravenek is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In the 1990s, he wrote Arthur for the Apple Macintosh computer, with its own graphical user interface. In 2008, he wrote Eowyn, a private chess engine.

Herbert Raymond created a chess program called GENIE in 1971.

Peter Reckwitz ( -1989) was a developer of the Fidelity Electronics chess boards. He specialized in tuning dedicated chess computers. In 1985, he marked the RCS Granit dedicated chess computer.

Adrien Regimbald is a Canadian computer engineer. In 2000, he wrote the open source chess program Faile.

Sven Reichard is a German mathematician and computer chess programmer. He is the author of Alice, an experimental open source chess engine, written in C++.

Gaby von Rekoski is a female German chess programmer. She is the co-author of the chess program Nightmare, first released in 1989 and written in C.

Sylvain Renard is a computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the chess engine Capture.

Willem Rens is a Dutch retired IT professional. In 1979, he wrote his first chess program, Gabmol, written in Z80 assembly. In 1980, he wrote Gambiet, initially written in Z80 assembly language to run on a TRS-80. It was the first Dutch commercial chess program, merchandised through Microtrend. He later wrote GambitVB in Visual Basic.

Gerrit Reubold is a German computer chess programmer. In 1999, he wrote the chess program Bringer. It had its own GUI running under Windows.

Fritz Reul is a German mathematician, computer scientist, and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines List and Loop.

Alexander Reznitskly is a Russian computer scientist. In the 1970s and 1980s, he was involved in the research of project Pioneer, a Soviet AI project with the aim of developing a chess program to model a chess master’s mind.

Mauro Riccardi is an Italian physicist. In 2008, he wrote Chexa, a private chess engine written in C.

Brian Richardson is a computer chess programmer. He is the author of the private chess engine Tinker.

Helmut Richter is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1971, he wrote Schach MV 5,6 on a Telefunken TR-4 and TR 440 mainframe. It was later ported to a PDP-10. The program contained about 5,000 Fortran statements.

Rolf Riesen is a senior research scientist. In 1995, he supported and advised the MIT-team with their parallel chess program Star Socrates, which played on an Intel Paragon parallel supercomputer.

Eric van Riet-Paap is a Dutch computer games programmer. In 1988, he wrote Zen, a chess program that ran on a CMOS microcontroller with 4KB or ROM and 128 bytes of RAM. In 1992, he wrote Genesis, a PC chess program written in C and x86 Assembly. He also wrote the chess engines Petunia and Turning Point.

Dr. Ryan Rifkin is an American mathematician and computer scientist. He is a co-author of the massive parallel chess program StarTech, which ran on a CM-5 Connection Machine.

Luigi Ripamonti is an Italian software developer and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Tamerlane, Madeleine, and Shield.

Joel Rivat is a French mathematician, computer scientist, and computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the chess program Chess Guru.

Nicola Rizzuti is an Italian computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Gargamella and Mizar.

Derek Robb is an American physicist. In 1980, he was a team member of the Cray Blitz chess program team.

Charles Roberson is an American computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines NoonianChess, Telepath, and Ares.

Dr. Michael de V. Roberts is an early computer programmer. In 1957, he was a member of the team developing the chess playing program for the IBM 704.

James Robertson is an American computer chess programmer. In 1999, he wrote the chess program Insomniac, written in C++.

Erik Robersson is a Swedish computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines StAndersen and Alarm.

William Rogers was an American computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess program Warlord. It had its own GUI.

Jeff Rollason is a British computer scientist and games programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Treebeard, Merlin, and Rasputin.

Jean-Francois Romang is a French computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess engines Cassandre, Gaia, ChessPad, and PicoChess.

Tord Romstad is a Norwegian chess and games programmer. In 2004, he wrote the UCI-compatible open source engine Glaurung. In 2014, he wrote the parallel search engine Viper.

Toma Roncevic is a Croatian computer scientist. In 2002, he wrote the open source chess engine Thor’s Hammer.

Tony van Roon-Werten is a Dutch computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2000, he wrote the chess engine XiniX, written in Delphi. A 2004 version was re-written in C++.

Francisco Javier Ros-Padilla is a Spanish mathematician and former computer chess programmer. In 1993, he wrote the chess program Jupiter, written in Turbo Pascal.

Jonathan Rosenthal is a Swiss computer scientist. In 2015, he wrote the chess engine The Machine. In 2018, he released a UCI-compliant open source chess engine called Winter.

Mariusz Rostek is a Polish computer scientist and electrical engineer. He is the author of the chess programs Szeregowiec, Sierzant, and Porucznik.

Valentin Rottmann is a German computer chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess program Ulysses, released in 1992 and written in C.

Ira Ruben is an American computer scientist and former chess programmer. In the 1970s, he was the co-author of the chess program CHAOS. He later left the CHAOS team to work for Apple Inc.

Joseph Rubenfeld is an American electrical engineer, computer scientist, and software professional. In the late 1960s, he worked on the CMU Chess Program for the CDC G-21 system at Carnegie-Mellon University, written in ALGOL 20.

Pedro Rubio-Nevado is a former Spanish computer chess programmer. In 1993, he wrote the Windows chess program Stonewall.

Andreas Rudin (Andreas Keil) is a German computer scientist. In 1974, he wrote the chess program Charlie, written on over 6,000 lines of assembly language, which ran on a Siemens 4004.

Michal Rudolf is a Polish computer scientist and software developer. He was a contributor to SCID. He was also a developer for the multi-platform ChessX database and GUI, and the commercial Hiarcs Chess Explorer.

Alberto Alonso Ruibal is a Galician software engineer. He is the author of the chess engine Carballo, and co-author of Mobialia Chess.

Remy de Ruysscher is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess program Grijp, and the chess program Shannon, released in 1996.

Vladimir Rybinkin is a Russian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess program Mirage, released in 1992. It was written in 8086 Assembly to run under MS-DOS on PCs.

Timo Saari is a Finnish computer scientist. In 1983, he wrote the mainframe chess program Shy for the Burroughs B7800/B7900.

Severi Salminen is a Finnish software developer and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the WinBoard-compliant chess engine Requiem, written in C with some x86 assembly routines.

Maurizio Sambati is an Italian software development engineer. In 2006, he wrote the UCI-compliant open source chess engine Smash, written in C++.

Shane Samole is an American entrepreneur. In 1987, he, and his father Sidney Samole, was involved in producing dedicated chess computers for Fidelity. In 1992, he was founder and president of Excalibur Electronics.

Sid Samole (1935-2000) was the owner and president of Fidelity Electronics (makers of hearing aids and chess computers) and a chess philanthropist.  He, along with Ron Nelson, invented the first commercial electronic computer, the Chess Challenger I. He founded Excalibur Electronics, which housed the World Chess Hall of Fame in Miami, until it moved to Saint Louis in 2011.

Lars Sandin is a Swedish computer chess aficionado. In 2013, he was chairman of the SSDF, the Swedish Chess Computer Association, and responsible for the SSDF rating list.

Dr. Enrique Sanchez Acosta is a Spanish computer scientist. In 2000, he wrote the chess program Alfil, written in C++.

Alberto Sanjuan is a Spanish computer engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2012, he wrote Rhetoric, a UCI-compliant chess engine, written in C++.

Timur Sataev is a Russian chess programmer. He is the author of the chess program Raccoon.

Aleksandrs Saveljevs is a Latvian computer chess programmer. In 2006, he wrote the chess engine Warrior, written in C.

Mauro Scarpa is an Italian computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the WinBoard-compliant chess engine Aldebaran, written in C.

Dennis Sceviour is a Canadian computer chess programmer. In the late 1970s, he wrote Schooner, which was revived and updated using Magic Bitboards (a hashing algorithm to index a bitboard database) in 2015.

Ralf Schaefer is a German computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engine Cheetah, and the co-author of the chess engine Spike.
br> Jonathan Schaeffler developed the chess program PHOENIX at the University of Alberta in 1982.

Reinhard Scharnagl ( -2015) was a German computer chess programmer. He was the author of the chess program SMIRF.
br> Tony Scherzer created the chess program BEBE in 1981.

Felix Schmenger is a German computer chess programmer. He is the author of the private chess engine Betta, written in C/C++.
br> Alexander Schmidt is a German computer chess tester and opening book author. He provides information on UCI and WinBoard engines.
br> Michael Schmidt is a German former computer chess programmer. Along with Christopher Lutz, he was co-author of the chess program Paul, written in Turbo Pascal.
br> Frank Schneider is a German computer scientist and chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess engines GromitChess, Anaconda, PocketGrandmaster, and the primary author of Ginkgo.
br> Hans-Jochan Schneider is a German mathematician, computer scientist, and early chess programmer. In 1965, along with Kurt Fischer, he wrote the first German chess program, Fischer-Schnedier, initially written in assembly language.
br> Peter Schreiner is a German computer chess expert, tester, writer, and journalist. He is one of the founders of the Computer Chess Club (CCC).
br> Ed Schroeder is a Dutch computer chess programmer and founder of Schroeder BV, a chess software developing company. He is the author of the commercial chess programs Rebel, Gideon, and ChessMachine. He is the author of Pro Deo, a free chess program.
br> Gunther Schrufer is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess programs Bobby, Bobby II, and Doctor.
br> Sven Schule is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote the WinBoard-compatible chess engine Surprise. In 2010, he wrote the chess engine KnockOut. In 2016, he wrote the chess engine Jumbo.
br> Dieter Schultze is a German electrical engineer and former chess programmer. In 1983, he co-authored the dedicated Chess-Master computer, manufactured by VEB Mikroelektronic in Germany.
br> Alcides Schulz is a Brazilian professional software developer and programmer. He is the author of the chess engines Tucano and Enxadrista.
br> Jams Schuyler is an American FIDE master and chess teacher. In 193, he contributed to the MIT StarTech chess program as chess advisor, tester, and opening book editor.
br> Steven Schwartz is an American computer chess businessman and founder of the ICD (Institutional Computer Development) Corporation in 1978. Its focus was on dedicated chess computers.
br> Jay Scott is an American mathematician. He was an early GNU Chess contributor. He is the author of the experimental chess program Kon.
br> John J. Scott is a British computer scientist and early computer chess programmer. In 1968, he wrote the chess program Lancaster for the ICL 1909/5 mainframe computer.
br> Alessandro Scotti is an Italian computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Kiwi and Hamsters.
br> Martin Sedlak is a Czech software engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2006, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Cheng.
br> Jean-Luc Seret is a French research engineer. In 1995, he was the co-author of Frenchess, which ran on a Cray T3D with 128 DEC Alpha 21064 processors. It was written in C.
br> Fermin Serrano is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 2007, he wrote the WinBoard-compliant chess engine Rodin, written in C.
br> Claude Shannon (1916-2001) was a research worker at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey. In 1948, he described how to program a computer to play chess. He proposed basic strategies for restricting the number of possibilities to be considered in a game of chess. Shannon categorized two types of search. Type A was a brute-force search looking at every variation to a given depth, and favored by fast processors. Type B was a selective search looking at important branches only. On March 9, 1949, Shannon presented a paper called “Programming a Digital Computer for Playing Chess.” The paper was presented at the National Institute for Radio Engineers Convention in New York. In 1949, Shannon built an “electric chess automaton.” It could handle 6 pieces and was used to test programming methods. In 1950 Claude Shannon devised a chess playing program that appeared in the paper "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess." This was the first article on computer chess. In March 1950, Shannon published “A Chess-Playing Machine” in Scientific American. The article was concerned with the problem of constructing a computing routine or "program" for a computer to enable it to play chess.

Lincoln Shannon is an American early computer chess programmer. In 1976, he wrote Chesstar, which ran on a Honeywell x16 16-bit minicomputer.

Cliff Shaw (1922-1991) was a research scientist at the RAND Corporation. In 1955, he assisted Allen Newell and Herbert Simon in developing their CP-1 chess program later called NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon).

Daniel Shawul is an Ethiopian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines DanChess and Scorpio.

Michael Sherwin is an American computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote the WinBoard compatible chess engine RomiChess, written in C.

Yuri Shpeer is a Russian computer chess programmer. In 1995, he was the co-author of the chess engine Dragon, used as an analysis engine of Convekta’s Chess Assistant.

Evgeny Shtranvasser is an Israeli physicist. He is the author of the UCI-compliant open source chess engine, written in C+.

Mikhail Shura-Bura (1918-2008) was a Soviet scientist. In 1961, a chess program was written at the Steklov Institute of Mathematics in Moscow under the direction of Shura-Bura. The program ran on a Strela or M-20 single-processor computer.

Chua Kong Sian is a Singaporean computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Cobalt, and GNU Chess 5. He is the author of the UCI-compliant chess engine Melee Chess, written in C++.

Grzegorz Sidorowicz is a Polish chess programmer. He is the author of the WinBoard compliant chess program Armageddon, released in 1999.

Allard Siemelink is a Dutch computer chess programmer. He is the author of the UCI-compliant chess engines Bright and Spark.

Albert Silver is a Brazilian computer chess journalist and tester. From 1999 to 2002, he was affiliated with Convekta as a software designer for Chess Assistant. He is the author of the Silver Openings Suite used in test matches between engines.

Gurenther Simon is a German computer chess aficionado and computer chess tester. He maintains the Regensburg Winbaord Circuit (RWBC) rating list.

Dr. Herbert Simon (1916-2001) was an American economist, political scientist, artificial intelligence pioneer, and Nobel prize-winner (1957). He earned a PhD in political science from the University of Chicago. He was also an American psychologist and made a study of chessplayers. In 1957, he predicted a digital computer would beat the world chess champion by 1967. He developed a chess program in the 1950s and co-invented the alpha-beta algorithm in chess. He was a major contributor to artificial intelligence and co-wrote Perception in Chess in Cognitive Psychology. In 1966, along with George Baylor, he wrote a chess program called MATER. It was written in Fortran. It did not play chess games. Rather, it was a chess analyst limited to searching for checkmating combinations in positions containing tactical possibilities. A combination in chess is a series of forcing moves with sacrifice that ends with an objective advantage for the active side. A checkmating combination, then, is a combination in which that objective advantage is check-mate. Thus, the MATER program, given a position, generated forcing moves that put the enemy King in check or threatene mate in one move, and then analyzed those moves that appear most promising.

Will Singleton is an amateur chess programmer. In 1977, he wrote his first chess program in 6502 assembly to run on an Apple II computer. He is the author of Amateur, a free chess engine written in C. Its primary platform was the Macintosh.

Kai Skibbe is a German chess programmer. He is the co-author of the chess engines GromitChess, Anaconda, and PocketGrandmaster.

Peter Skinner is a Canadian information technology and services professional. He was a member of the Crafty team that supported an open source chess engine.

David Slate, a physics student at Northwestern University, wrote a chess program in 1969 and combined it with the chess program by Atkin and Gorlen. Their program became CHESS 2.0. In 1970, Slate received a letter containing suggestions for improving CHESS 2.0 from International Master David Levy, who had tested the program at the University of London. Improvements were made and the new release was now called CHESS 3.0. CHESS 3.0 was now more efficient and running 65% faster than CHESS 2.0.

Lawrence Slomer is an American electrical engineer. While at Carenie-Mellon University, he was a member of the Hitech chess entity (special purpose hardware and software) team. He was involved in constructing and maintaining Hitech’s hardware.

Alexander G. M. Smith is a Canadian computer scientist and computer programmer. In 1995, he was the project leader of Corel Chess.

John Maynard Smith (1920-2004) designed a chess move analyzer called SOMA (Smith One-Move analyzer) in 1961. It used an evaluation function that took in account the material, mobility, and ‘swap-off values.’

Rolf C. Smith is an American computer scientist and early chess programmer. In 1968, he was a co-author of the chess program Schach, written in Fortran. He is the author of R. Smith’s Chess Explorer 1 (RSCE-1), written in Cobol.

Christian Soederstroem is a Swedish computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2000, he wrote the WinBoard-compatible compliant chess engine.

Ken Sogge, along with Gary Maltzen, wrote a chess program called BLACK KNIGHT in 1975.

Christian Sommerfeld is a German civil engineer and software developer. In 2004, he wrote a UCI and WinBoard-compatible open source chess engine called Fridolin, written in C++.

Daniel Sparks is an American mathematician and computer chess programmer. In 2014, he wrote the open source chess engine Exacto, written in C++.

Wil Sparreboom is a Dutch electrical engineer, software developer, and owner of TASC. In 1989, TASC released The Final Chesscard in 1989 for the Commodore. It continued with its successor, ChessMachine for the IBM PC with a pluggable ISA card on board the ARM2 RISC processor.

In September 1977, Dan and Kathe Spracklen began working on their computer program called SARGON. In March 1978, SARGON won the first tournament for microcomputers, the West Coast Computer Faire, held in San Jose, scoring 5-0. The original Sargon was written by Dan and Kathleen Spracklen in a Z80-based computer called Wavemate Jupiter III. It was written using Z-80 assembly language through TDL Macro Assembler.

David Stafford is an American software engineer. In 1987, he wrote the chess program World Class Chess. This was the first commercial chess program which offered a user-configurable opening book library. In 1987, he wrote Greco, a chess program written in C that ran on an 8086 IBM PC.

Vlad Stamate is an American computer scientist and software engineer. In 2006, he wrote the chess program ps2chess. In 2009, he wrote the UCI-compatible chess engine Plisk, written in C++.

John Stanback is an American electrical engineer and computer chess programmer. In 1987, he wrote SCP (Stanback Chess Program), an open source program which later evolved to GNU Chess. In 1989, he wrote Zarkov. In 2016, he released the successor of Zarkov, dubbed Wasp, a UCI-compliant chess engine.

Thomas Starke is a German software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1988, he wrote Happy-Chess for the Commodore 64.

Paul R. Stein is an American physicist and mathematician. In 1956, he was part of the team that wrote a chess-playing program for the MANIAC I. It played Los Alamos chess on a 6x6 board without bishops.

Dieter Steinwender is a German computer scientist and computer chess expert. In 1979, he wrote the chess program Murks, written for an Interdata M85. In 1981, he wrote MicroMurks for the Motorola 68000 micro-processor.

Lewis Stiller is an American computer scientist and software developer. He is the co-author of the Chess Query Language (CQL), which used SCID code by Shane Hudson.

Boris Stillman is a Russian mathematician and computer scientist. From 1972 to 1988, he worked with Mikhail Botvinnik and Alexander Yudin on the Pioneer computer chess project.

Ralph Stoesser is a German software developer. He contributed to the Stockfish DD release.

Theo van der Storm (1960-2009) was a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1981, he wrote the chess program Storm. It was originally written in Pascal and ran on a PDP-11. He later ported it to C to run on various microprocessor platforms.

Andreas Strangmueller is a German correspondence chess player. He maintains yjr GastGMs Rating Lists (FGRL) for computer chess engines.

Jose Strapasson is a computer chess programmer. He is the author of PreCess and the chess GUI NewBoard, both written in Ada 95. He is also the author of Simple Chess GUI, written in Free Pascal Lazarus.

Stephen Streater is a British computer scientist. In 1989, he wrote the chess program E6P, which ran on an ARM2 processor of an Acorn Archimedes. He later wrote C_897d, ported it to a StrongARM processor that reached 750,000 nodes per second.

Marek Strejczek is a Polish computer scientist and chess programmer. In 2004, he wrote the WinBoard-compliant chess engine Nesik, written in C++.

In 1970, Thomas Stroehlein published a doctoral thesis with analysis of endgames involving Queen, Rook, Pawn, Queen and Rook, Rook and Bishop, and Rook and Knight endgames. He did the first retrograde analysis implementation on a computer to construct endgame databases.

Gregory Strong is an American software developer. In 2004, he wrote the open source chess engine ChessV that plays over 50 chess variants with various board sizes. It was written in C++.

Stephen Stuart is an American early chess programmer. In 1977, he wrote a chess program for the Signetics 2650 8-bit microprocessor.

Roland Stuckardt is a German computer scientist. He is the author of the Java-based UCI chess engine Fischerle.

Peter Sucker is a German software developer. In 1993, he wrote the chess program Pschach, written in Pascal.

Joseph Sugarman is an American electrical engineer, and founder and CEO of JS&A Group, Inc. In 1978, he marketed the JS&A chess computer, a Novag licensees Chess Champion MK !

Johanes Suhardjo is an American computer scientist. In 1994, he wrote the open source engine Parrot, written in C.

Steen Suurballe is a Danish computer chess programmer. In 1993, he wrote the chess program Gandalf, initially developed as an MS-DOS program with its own GUI, and marketed by Gambft.

James Swafford is an American computer scientist and software developer. He is the author of the chess engines Tristam, Galahad, Prophet, and chess4j.

Fred Swartz is an American computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. In the early 1970s, he was a co-author of the chess program CHAOS.

Barend Swets of the Netherlands founded the International Computer Chess Association (ICCA) in 1977. In 2002, it was renamed the International Computer Games Association (ICGA). In 1977. Swets wrote a chess program called BS’66’76.

Alexander Szabo is a computer scientist, physicist, and computer chess programmer. In 1986, he wrote the commercial chess program TechMate, which was designed for the Atari ST.

Laszlo Szalai is a Hungarian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote the chess engine Crux, which ran under Windows.

Antoni Szczepanski is a Polish computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote the WinBoard-compatible chess engine Matant, written in C.

Maciej Szmit is a Polish computer scientist. He is the author of the Akiba chess program. He is also the author of WBUnit, a Delphi unit for Chess Engine Communication Protocol support.

Milos Tatarevic is a Serbian mathematician and computer scientist. In 2018, he wrote the UCI-compliant open source chess engine Xiphos.

Mark Taylor is a British computer chess programmer. In the 1980s, he worked for Philidor Software and Intelligent Software. He was the main programmer of the SciSys Intelligent Chess computer and PetChess, a chess program for the Commodore PET, released in 1981.

Hal Terri is an American chess master. During the 1970s, he contributed to the chess program Dartmouth CP.

James Testa is an American physicist and hardware engineer. In 1990, he co-developed the Berkeley Chess Microprocessor (BCM). It was a 200,000 transistor VLSI chip. In 1990, he developed Zerker, a chess entity that ran on a 32-bit Sun SPARCstation, written in C. It was able to look at 7 million moves per second.

Christophe Theron is a French computer chess programmer. In 1997, he wrote the chess engine Chess Tiger.

Nathan Thom is an Australian software engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2006, he wrote the UCI-compatible chess engine Little Thought. He also wrote the Windows tournament manager program for UCI-based chess engines, LittleBlitzer.

Andy Thomason is a British physicist, electronics engineer, and mathematician. In 1980, he wrote the chess program Killer Chess, written in Z80 Assembly.

Ken Thompson (1943- ) wrote his first chess-playing program in 1971. He began work on a chess program for the PDP-11, which would eventually become BELLE. In 1973, Thompson wrote TINKER BELLE, a ‘C’ language chess program under Unix. In 1977, Thompson’s BELLE chess machine was the first computer system to use custom design chips to increase its playing strength. It increased its search speed from 200 positions per second to 160,000 positions per second (8 ply). Over 1,700 integrated circuits were used to construct BELLE. The chess computer was built by Ken Thompson. The program was later used to solve endgame problems. The cost of BELLE was $20,000. In 1982, Thompson traveled to Moscow for a computer chess tournament and thought his computer, BELLE (PDP-11/23), was traveling with him on the airplane in a crate. However, the U.S. Customs Service confiscated the chess computer at Kennedy Airport as part of Operation Exodus, a program to prevent illegal export of high technology items to the Soviets. It took over a month and a $600 fine to retrieve BELLE from customs. Thompson later said that the only way the BELLE would be a military threat if it was dropped from an airplane on the head of some government official. A Fredkin Prize of $5,000 was presented to Ken Thompson and Joe Condon for their work on the first computer to earn a USCF master rating.

Alexander van Tiggelen (1953-2001) was a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1985, he wrote the chess program Schaak for the TRS-80, written in Z80 assembly.

Alexander Timofeev is a Ukrainian computer scientist and systems engineer. He was affiliated with Botvinnik’s Pioneer computer chess project. He was president of the Chess-Programming Association of the USSR.

William Toikka is an American electrical engineer, computer scientist, and former chess programmer. He was a co-author of the chess program CHAOS.

Oscar Toledo-Gutierrez is a Mexican computer chess programmer. In 2005, he wrote the minimalistic open source chess program Toledo, written in C.

Krasimir Topchiyski is a Bulgarian computer scientist and software engineer. In 2000, he wrote Bagatur, a free open source chess program, written in Java.

Ivo Tops is a Dutch software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote the private chess engine Tzunami.

Antonio Torrecillas-Gonzalez is a Catalan physicist and computer scientist. He is the author of the open source chess engines Rocinante and Simplex.

Ed Trice is an American electrical engineer and programmer. In 1985, he wrote The Sniper, a chess program for the Macintosh SE with 68000 processor.

Erik Triki is a French mathematician and computer chess programmer. In 2001, he wrote E. T. Chess, written in C.

Gerard Tripard is a Canadian born physicist. In 1967, he was a co-author of Charly, a chess program for the CDC 1604.

Tom Truscott is an American computer scientist. In the 1974, he was a co-author of the chess program Duchess, which ran on an IBM 370/168 and written in PL/I and Assembly.

Michael Tsfasman is a Russian mathematician and researcher. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, he worked on the Pioneer computer chess project in the USSR.

Ulrich Tuerke is a German physicist and computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the chess engine Comet, written in C and available for several platforms.

Laurie Tunnicliffe is an Australian electronics engineer and computer chess programmer. In 2012, he wrote LTChess, an open source chess program, written in Pascal.

Alan Turing (1912-1954) used chess-playing as an example of what a computer could do. Turing himself was a weak chess player. In 1946 Alan Turing made his first reference to machine intelligence in connection with chess-playing. In 1947, Alan Turing specified the first chess program for chess. In 1950, Alan Turing wrote the first computer chess program. The same year he proposed the Turing Test that in time, a computer could be programmed (such as playing chess) to acquire abilities rivaling human intelligence. If a human did not see the other human or computer during an imitation game such as chess, he/she would not know the difference between the human and the computer. In 1951, Turing tried to implement his “Turbochamp” program on the Ferranti Mark I computer at Manchester University. This was the world’s first commercially available general-purpose computer. He never completed the task.

Stanislaw Ulam (1909-1984) was a Polish mathematician. He was on the team the developed a chess-playing program for the MANIAC 1 at Los Alamos.

Mark Uniacke developed HIARCS (Higher Intelligence Auto-Response Chess System) in 1980. The first version was written in PDP-11 BASIC, when Uniacke was 15 years old.

Ivan Urwin is a British software engineer and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the UCI-compliant chess engine Sidonia.

Anatoly Uskov is a Russian computer scientist. In 1963, he co-developed the ITEP Chess Program.

Engin Ustun is a Turkish German computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote EnginMax, a UCI-compliant chess engine written in C and C++. In 2004, he wrote the UCI engine Tornado.

Oliver Uwira is a German computer programmer. In 2006, he wrote the UCI-compliant open source chess engine Kurt, written in C.

Mike Valenti wrote the chess program CHUTE in 1974.

Perola Valfridsson is a Swedish computer chess programmer. In 1998, he wrote the UCI-compatible chess engine Ruffian, written in C.

Andres Valverde-Toresano is a Spanish computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines EveAnn and Dirty.

Pable Vazques is a Spanish computer chess programmer. In 2009, he wrote the UCI-compliant open source chess engine Sungorus.

Jose Maria Velasco is a Spanish computer chess programmer. He is the author of Bouquet, a UCI-compliant Ippolit derivative, released in 2012.

Marcel Veldhuizen is a Dutch software architect and software developer. In 2001, he contributed to the chess engine Celes (also known as 31337).

Koundinya Veluri is a Canadian computer scientist. In 2001, he wrote the WinBoard-compliant chess engine King of Kings.

Dr. Joel Veness is an Australian games programmer, mathematician, and computer scientist. He is the author of the UCI-compliant chess engine Bodo. It was initially written in C, with a rewrite in C++ in 2005.

Stephen Vermeire is a Dutch computer chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote the open source engine Brutus.

Richard Vida is a Slovakian software developer and computer chess programmer. In 2008, he wrote the UCI-compatible cross-platform chess engine Critter.

Tom Vijlbrief is a Dutch computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the WinBoard compatible chess engine Ant, written in C++.

Victor Vikhrev is a Russian physicist and computer chess programmer. In 1971, he wrote his first chess program, written in Algol for the BESM-6 mainframe computer. In 1988, he was a co-author of the chess program Centaur. It was later written in Pascal to run on an IBM-PC.

John von Neumann (1903-1957) created the minimax algorithm and showed how it applied, in theory, to the game of chess. Neumann classified chess as a two-player zero-sum game with perfect information.

Zvonko Geroge Vranesec is a Croatian-Canadian electrical engineer. In 1974, he co-authored with Michael Valenti the chess program Chute (Chess, University of Toronto, Engineering).

Dr. Gert Vriend is a Dutch computer scientist and former computer chess programmer. In 1981, he wrote GVNA, a series of mainframe chess programs written for the PCP-10.

Vladan Vuckovic is a Serbian computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Axon and Achilles.

Larry Wagner is an American computer scientist and programmer. In 1978, he served as tournament director of the First Microcomputer Chess Tournament, held in San Jose, California. In 1978, he wrote Video Chess, a chess program for the Atari 2600 Video game console.

Robert Wagner is an American mathematician and computer scientist. In 1061, while at MIT, he was a member of the chess group that wrote the chess program for the IBM 7090, which later evolved to the Kotok-McCarthy Chess Program.

William Walden is an American mathematician and computer scientist. During the 1950s, he was part of the Los Alamos team the developed a chess-playing program.

Eric Walstra is a Dutch computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess program Morphy.

Dr. David Waltz is an American electrical engineer. From 1984 to 1993, he was involved in the StarTech project, a massive parallel chess program. He helped get the program running on a CM-5 Connection Machine.

Tony Warnock is an American mathematician. In 1986, he co-authored the chess program Lachex (Los Alamos Chess Experiment) written for a Cray X-MP 48. The program was written in Fortran and Assembly.

Zach Wagner is an American computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines ZCT and Rondo.

David Weller is an American electrical engineer and software developer. He is the author of the WinBoard engines GES and Xpdnt.

Mark Wells is an American mathematician and computer scientist. During the 1950s he was part of the Los Alamos team that developed a chess-playing program on the MANIAC I.

Burton Wendroff (1930- ) is an American mathematician. He is a co-author of the chess program Lachex.

Bart Weststrate is a Dutch software developer and computer chess programmer. In 1987, he wrote the commercial chess program Kallisto, which ran on an x86 under MS-DOS.

Stephen Wheeler is an American computer scientist. In the late 1980s, he wrote the open source chess program HAL (Heuristic Associative Linear-algorithm), written in Turbo Pascal. Daniel White is a British software developer. He is the author of the chess engines AdroitChess, iota, and Robocide, all written in C.

Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) was an American mathematician. In 1948, he wrote a book called Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine. In it, he described how a chess program could be developed using a depth-limited minimax search with an evaluation function. He wrote, “It would probably win over a stupid or careless chess player, and would almost certainly lose to a careful player of any considerable degree of proficiency. In other words, it might very well be as good a player as the vast majority of the human race. This does not mean that it would reach the degree of proficiency of Maelzel’s fraudulent machine, but, for all that, it may attain a pretty fair level of accomplishment.”

Paul Wiereyn (1936- ) is a Dutch chess solving engine programmer. He is the author of the Windows GUI APwin for the chess problem solvings Alybadix and Popeye.

Gijsbert Wiesenekkar is a Dutch computer and games programmer. In 1991, he wrote the open source chess program Zzzzzz, written in C.

Charles Wilkes wrote a computer chess program called THE FOX in 1973. It was written in APL.

Andrew Williams is a British computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 2002, he wrote PostModernist, a chess program that runs under Linux and Windows platforms.

Dave Wilson wrote a chess program called DELTA in 1979. In 1980, he, along with Mike Johnson, developed the chess program ADVANCE 1.0.

Gregory Wilson is a Canadian computer scientist. In 1989, he wrote Moby, a multiprocessor chess program running on a large (200 to 400 processors) Melko Computing Surface based on Inmos T800 Transputer chips.

Erich Winkler is a Swiss physicist and manufacturer of consumer electronics and dedicated chess computers. In 1978, along with Peter Auge, he co-founded Novag. In 1979, he was the founder and CEO of SciSys (Scientific Systems). All the SciSys computers were manufactured in Hong Kong. In 1987, it was renamed Saitek, which made the Mephisto dedicated chess computers.

Gerhard Wolf created a chess program called DAVID in 1971.

Wolfram Wolff is a German computer scientist and former chess programmer. In 1979, he was a co-author of Parwell, a chess program which performed a distributed search on a 128-processor (8080) Siemens SMS 201 computer. The program was written in Fortran and 8080 Assembly and searched about 300 nodes per second.

Rudiger Worbs is a German electrical engineer and former chess programmer. He was the primary developer of the programs of the dedicated Chess-Master series.

Bruce Wright, along with Eric Jensen and Tom Truscott, wrote the computer chess program DUCHESS, while students at Duke University.

Matthias Wullenweber, along with Frederic Friedel, wrote the first ChessBase database in 1986.

Shaun Wylie (1913-2009), along with Donald Michie, created a chess program (paper machine) called Machiavelli.

Benjamin Yalow is an Americcan computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1970, he co-authored the chess program CCCP, which ran on an IBM 360/91.

Ludwig Zagler wrote a chess program called ELSA in 1977.

Dr. Victor Zakharov is a Russian computer scientist. He is the founder of ChessOK (also known as Convekta) and primary developer of Chess Assistant and Aquarium. He and Vladimir Makhnychev were involved in generating the 7-men Lomonosov Tablebases using the Lomonosov supercomputer.

Ales Zamuda is a Slovenian computer scientist. In 2007, he wrote an experimental free open source chess program called QuTeChess, written in C++.

Alain Zanchetta is a French software development engineer. He is the author of CEBoard, a chess GUI for Windows mobile devices and Pocket PC.

Dragan Zdravkovic is a Serbian software developer. In 2012, he wrote the UCI-compliant chess engine Nebula. He has also authored several PGN-related utilities which allows a desktop machine and engines to analyze chess positions on any smartphone, tablet, or laptop with an Internet connection.

Martin Zenter is a German computer scientist and former chess programmer. In 1994, he was the co-author of the chess program XXXX, written in C.

Franck Zibi is a French computer scientist and computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess engines HpChess, ZChess, and Pharaon.

Stefan Zipproth is a German computer scientist and computer chess programmer. In 1995, he wrote the chess engine Aristarch, first written in Basic. He later re-wrote it in C++.

Al Zobrist, along with Ric Carlson, wrote the computer chess program TYRO in 1975.

Sander de Zoete is a Dutch computer chess programmer. He is the author of the chess programs Shark and Praetorian.

Konrad Zuse (1910-1995), a German engineer and computer pioneer, was one of the first persons to write on the theoretical contribution of computer chess. He is considered the inventor of the world’s first programmable computer, and the first high-level programming language (Planjalhul). In 1941, his Z3 machine was programmable through punched tape programs. In 1942, Zuse began writing a computer chess program in Plankalkul (high-level programming language) on punched cards. In 1945, Zuse designed the world’s first chess program.

Dr. Johannes Zwanzger is a German mathematician and chess programmer. In 2003, he wrote the chess program Jonny, with executables for Windows and Linux.

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