George Atwood, F.R.S.
by Bill Wall

George Atwood was born in Westminster, London, England on October, 1745. He was baptized on October 15, 1745. His father, Thomas Atwood (1721-1770), was the curate (assistant to a vicar) of St. Clement Danes Church in Westminster, London. George was the oldest of three sons.

He was an English mathematician and lecturer at Cambridge.

In 1759, he attended Westminster School as a king's scholar.

On June 5, 1765 was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge.

In 1769, he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree. He graduated with the rank of third wrangler (ranked 3rd among First Class students). He was the first winner of the Smith Prize (named after the Rev. Robert Smith) for the best proficiency in mathematics and natural philosophy.

In 1770, his father died and his brother, Thomas, became curate of St. Clement Danes Church in London.

In 1770, he became a fellow at Trinity College.

He took religious Orders with his Fellowship, but he never had any Church preferment. He is sometimes referred to as Reverend George Atwood.

In 1772, he received his Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University.

In 1772, Parsloe's Coffee House was formed in London.

In 1773, he became a tutor at Trinity College and was a very popular lecturer of natural philosophy at Cambridge. The 18th century was characterized by a widespread interest for natural philosophy, driven by public lecture courses and the publication of popular texts.

Atwood taught mathematics, physics, and astronomy. He loved to demonstrate physical principles using pendulums, pulleys, pumps, and many other devices. Atwood's lectures at Trinity College attracted all the mathematical talent of the university. His lectures were not only accurate and clear, but delivered fluently and illustrated with great ingenuity. One of his students was William Pitt the Younger, who later became prime minister of Britain.

In 1774, Parsloe's was the scene of the first organized chess club in England, strictly limited to 100 players at a three- guinea subscription.  The dues were used to pay for Philidor's expenses while in London.  From 1774 to 1795, Philidor frequented Parsloe's Coffee House. Parsloe's existed from 1772 to 1825.

On June 13, 1776, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (F.R.S.) of London. He was formally admitted a member of the Royal Society on Nov 13, 1776.

In 1776, he published his lectures on descriptions of his scientific demonstrations. They consisted of simple experiments to illustrated mechanics, hydrostatics, electricity, magnetism, and optics.

In 1776, he wrote a treatise on optics, but it was never completed.

In 1781, he published a paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society on the theory of the sextant (A General Theory for the Mensuration of the Angle subtended by two Objects).

In the 1780s, Atwood began lecturing about Newtonian physics. Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was the president of the Royal Society from 1703 to his death in 1727. His Newtonian physics was very hard to understand and it was Atwood that helped many in understanding Newton and his three laws of motion.

In 1784, he published Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy.

During Newton's life many attempts at experimental measurement of the surface acceleration of gravity were made. This task was difficult since the "natural" fall of an object occurs with through relatively great distances and in quite short spans of time. A clever scheme was needed to quantify gravity. Some forty years after Newton's death, Atwood devised and built an ingenious apparatus to measure that acceleration. So successful was his device that thereafter all devices developed to measure Earth's acceleration of gravity were called "Atwood Machines" or Atwood's Pulley. Atwood's method was to "slow down" the "free fall" acceleration so it could be measured.

Atwood complained that in "books of mechanics no account is found of methods by which the principles of motion may be subjected to decisive and satisfactory trials. Designed to control the effects of imposing factors such as wheel friction, Atwood's machine could demonstrate Newton's theories by modifying and measuring velocity, accelerating force and distance.Atwood's machine consists of two balanced cylinders linked by a cord suspended over a pulley, where additional weights can be attached (or removed) to either cylinder in order to provide a net (or zero) force acting on the system.

In 1784, he had an Atwood machine (a pulley-wheel arrangement) built for verifying experimentally the laws of acceleration of motion. This illustrated the effects of Newton's first law of motion. The machine was constructed and used to demonstrate for the first time the laws of uniformly accelerated motion of a free-falling body due to gravity. Atwood's machine changed the way of propagating Newtonian mechanics. His machine demonstrated Newton's Second Law that force equals mass times acceleration (F=ma).

In 1784, he published Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies. This described his Atwood's machine and was a textbook on Newtonian mechanics. It is known that a body falling freely travels 16 feet in the first second, 64 feet in the first two seconds, 144 feet in the first three seconds, and so on. As these distances are so large, it would require a machine if impracticable size to illustrated the relations just mentioned. The object of Atwood's machine is to reduce the scale on which gravity acts without altering its essential features as an accelerating force. His Atwood Machine had better accuracy than the inclined plane method being used at the time and was more effective in conveying concepts to his pupils at Trinity College in Cambridge.

Many first year physics students still use Atwood's machine for the purpose of determining the value of g = 9.8 meters per second per second (or 32 feet per second per second).

In late 1784, William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806) offered Atwood 500 pounds per year to act as his private secretary for financial affairs and economic advisor, provided he resign from Cambridge and take up residence in London. Pitt the Younger was prime minister of Britain from 1783 to 1801, and from 1804 to 1806. Atwood was responsible for the principles and schemes for raising money for the public service. Atwood was head of the office of patent searcher of the customs.

In 1786, Atwood published a paper on the arithmetic of factors.

After moving from Cambridge to London, Atwood became interested in chess. English chess owes more to George Atwood than it does to any other person as he was one of the first persons to collect and record chess games. We would not have any of Philidor's chess games, or other prominent players in the late 18th century and the early 19th century if it hadn't been for Atwood. By the end of his life in 1807, he had filled 15 notebooks with chess games. He had compiled and collected several hundred games of chess, either by himself, or other players that he observed.

He also had an interest in music and superintended a concert at Cambridge for charity.

In 1787, he joined the Parsloe's Chess Club at the age of 43. He was a frequent attendant at Parsloe's Coffee House and Chess Club on James Street, London, next door to the Thatched House Tavern. It was the main chess club in London at the time.

He was one of the first persons to record his chess games, which was rare during this period. Between 1787 and 1801, Atwood recordedover 100 chess games played by Count Bruehl, Joseph Wilson, Dr. Bowdler, Lord Harrowby, General Henry Seymore Conway, Mr. Cotter, Mr. Lecester, Dr. Beaurevoir, Philidor, Verdoni, and Atwood himself. Without his records and notebooks, we would not have these chess scores today.

Atwood was a pupil of Philidor and took lessons from him.

Atwood started compiling, from various sources, a number of manuscript volumes of chess, recording as many games as he could. Atwood spent his later years involved in chess and recording chess games. He was equally fond of its theory and its practice. There are at least 32 of his chess games that he recorded between 1793 and 1801 that are extant today.

In January 1794, he published a paper in the Philosophical transactions on the theory of motion for determining the times and vibration of watch balances.

In 1794, an etching was made of Philidor surrounded by his friends, which included Atwood, Bruehl, Frances Masere, Thomas Bowdler, and Joseph Wilson.

On June 20, 1795, he took part in Francois-Andre Danican Philidor's last blindfold chess performance, held at Parsloe's Club in London. Philidor played 3 opponents at once, two blindfolded and a third game with sight of the board. Atwood was with Philidor when Philidor played his last game of chess nine days later. Philidor died on August 24, 1795.

In 1796, he published a paper in the Philosophical transactions on the positions of equilibrium of floating bodies. He extended the theories of Euler, Bougier and others to account for the stability of floating bodies with large angle of roll.

In January 1798, he published a paper in the Philosophical transactions on the stability of ships. The theory established by Atwood was based on the moment of transferred wedges' of displacement when a ship was heeled.

In 1798, he was recognized for his work on floating bodies and the stability of ships. He was awarded the Sir Godfrey Copley Medal of the Royal Society. The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society in London for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It is the most prestigious scientific award in the United Kingdom.

Previous winners of the Copley Medal include Benjamin Franklin, Lord Cavendish, Joseph Priestley, James Cook, William Herschel, Alessandro Volta, Humphry Davy, Carl Gauss, and Michael Faraday. The medal has been awarded to 52 Nobel Prize winners.

In 1798, he defeated Joseph Wilson in a match, scoring 3-0.

In 1799, he again defeated Joseph Wilson in a match, scoring 3-0.

Henry Bird wrote that Atwood was one of the strongest players in London in the late 18th century.

Most of Atwood's other published works consists of the mathematical analysis of practical problems. He analyzed the cost of bread for the British government and attempted to rationalize the standards for it. Atwood also was involved in calculating the British customs revenue.

In 1801, he wrote A Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize, concerning the history of the Assize of bread in England from 1202 to 1801.

In 1801, he wrote A Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches.

In 1802, Atwood contributed to the design of a new iron London Bridge over the Thames at Blackfriars.

In 1804, Atwood wrote a supplement on the construction and properties of arches, dedicated to King George III.

In Atwood's final years, he suffered from various infirmities and paralysis, with some sources noting that they were produced by intense mental labor. He was sometimes referred to as a human calculator.

He died in Westminster, London on July 11, 1807 at the age of 61, and was buried at St. Margaret's Church. He was buried under the shadow of Westminster Abbey.

Atwood left his chess papers and notebooks to his friend Joseph Wilson.

At the time of his death, Atwood was working on a rough draft of a projected work on the chess openings in a tabular arrangement.

After Wilson's death, his chess papers were offered for sale in 1833. Atwood's chess papers were sold to George Walker.

In 1835, George Walker published the chess games of Atwood in his book entitled A Selection of Games of Chess: Actually Played by Philidor and his Contemporaries. It contains 47 of Philidor's games. It is based on the note-taking of George Atwood.

On February 27, 1928, Atwood's notebooks were turned into three manuscript volumes and were sold for ten shillings in an auction of the chess library of Reginald Henry Rimington-Wilson (1852-1927) at Sotheby's.

(1) George Atwood - Francois Andre Philidor [B21]
London London, 22.03.1794
1.e4 c5 2.f4 e6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.c3 d5 5.e5 f5 6.d4 Nh6 7.a3 [7.h3] 7...Nf7 8.Be3 Qb6 9.Qd2 Bd7 10.Qf2 c4 11.Bxc4 dxc4 12.d5 Qc7 13.dxc6 Bxc6 14.Bxa7 Bxf3 15.gxf3 g5 16.Be3 gxf4 17.Bxf4 Nxe5 18.Bxe5 Qxe5+ 19.Qe2 Qxe2+ 20.Kxe2 h5 21.Nd2 Rc8 22.Rhg1 Kf7 23.Rg2 Be7 24.Rag1 Bf6 25.Nf1 e5 26.Ne3 Ke6 27.Rd1 Rhg8 28.Rxg8 Rxg8 29.Nxc4 Rg2+ 30.Kd3? [30.Kf1 Rxh2 31.Rd6+ Ke7 32.Rb6 Bh4 33.Rxb7+ (33.Kg1 Re2 34.Rxb7+ Kf6) 33...Kf6 34.Rb6+ Kg5 35.Nxe5] 30...Rxh2 31.Rd2 [31.a4] 31...Rh3 32.Ke2 b5 33.Ne3 [33.Na5 Bg5] 33...Rh2+ 34.Ke1 Rxd2 35.Kxd2 Bg5 36.Ke2 Bxe3 37.Kxe3 h4 38.Kf2 e4 39.Kg2 e3 40.Kh3 e2 0-1

(2) George Atwood - Francois Andre Philidor [D20]
London London, 03.1794
1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e3 e5 4.d5 [4.Bxc4] 4...c6 5.Bxc4 b5 [5...Nf6] 6.Bb3 c5 [6...Nf6] 7.a4 [7.Nc3] 7...c4 8.Bc2 Bb7 [8...Qa5+] 9.e4 [9.axb5] 9...a6 [9...b4] 10.Bd2 [10.axb5] 10...Bc5 [10...b4] 11.Qe2 [11.axb5] 11...Ne7 [11...Nd7] 12.Nf3 f6 [12...Nd7] 13.axb5 [13.0-0] 13...axb5 14.Rxa8 Bxa8 15.0-0 Qb6 [15...0-0] 16.Nc3 Bb4? [16...Qa6 17.b3; 16...Na6] 17.b3 [17.Ra1] 17...cxb3 [17...Qa5] 18.Bxb3 0-0 19.d6+ Kh8 20.dxe7 Bxe7 21.Rb1 [21.Nxb5] 21...b4 22.Nd5 Bxd5 23.Bxd5 f5 24.Ne1 [24.Nxe5] 24...fxe4 25.Bxe4 Na6 26.Nd3 b3 27.Bd5 b2 28.Rxb2 Qd4 29.Bb7 Nc5 30.Be3 [30.Qxe5! Qxe5 31.Nxe5] 30...Qxd3 31.Bxc5 Qxe2 32.Rxe2 Bxc5 33.Rc2 Bd4 34.Kf1 g6 35.Rc8 Rxc8 36.Bxc8 Kg7 37.h4 h5 38.Ke2 Kf6 39.Kf3 Kg7 40.Ke4 œ-œ

(3) George Atwood - Francois Andre Philidor [B21]
Casual London, 03.1794
1.e4 c5 2.f4 Nc6 3.Nf3 e6 4.c3 d5 5.e5 f5 6.d4 Nh6 7.h3 Qb6 8.b3 Bd7 9.Be3 Nf7 10.Qd2 0-0-0 11.Qf2 cxd4 12.Nxd4 Nxd4 [12...Bc5] 13.Bxd4 Qc6 14.Nd2 b6 [14...g5] 15.a4 Bc5 16.Bb5 [16.Ba6+] 16...Bxd4 [16...Qc7] 17.Qxd4 [17.Ba6+] 17...Qc5 [17...Qc7] 18.Nf3 Bxb5 [18...Rhg8] 19.Qxc5+ bxc5 20.axb5 Kb7 [20...Rd7] 21.Ke2 Ra8 [21...Rhe8] 22.Ra6 Rhe8 23.Rd1 Nd8 24.Ne1 c4 25.bxc4 dxc4 26.Rd7+ Kc8 27.Rxg7 Rb8 28.Raxa7 Rxb5 29.Rac7+ Kb8 30.Rxc4 Rb7 31.Rb4 Rxb4 32.cxb4 Nc6 33.Nd3 Re7 34.Rxe7 Nxe7 35.Nc5 Ng6 36.Nxe6 Kc8 37.Ke3 Kd7 38.Nd4 Ne7 39.g4 Ke8 40.g5 1-0

(4) Francois Andre Philidor - George Atwood
London, 07.02.1794
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.c3 Qe7 6.d4 d6 7.0-0 h5 8.h4 g4 9.Ng5 Nh6 10.Bxf4 0-0 11.Qb3 Nc6 12.Bd2 Nd8 13.Qc2 Kh8 14.Rae1 Ne6 [14...f6] 15.e5 Nxg5 16.hxg5 Ng8 17.exd6 Qxd6 18.Bxf7 Qc6 19.d5 Qd7?? [19...Qb5] 20.Qg6 Ne7 21.Qxh5+ Bh6 22.Qxh6# 1-0

(5) Jonathan Wilson - George Atwood [C37]
London London, 1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.0-0 gxf3 6.Qxf3 Qf6 7.c3 Nc6 8.d4 Nxd4 9.Bxf7+ Qxf7 10.cxd4 Bh6 11.Nc3 Ne7 12.e5 c6 13.Ne4 d5?? [13...0-0] 14.Nd6+ 1-0

(6) George Atwood - Cotter [C23]
Casual London, 1795
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 c6 3.Nf3 d5 4.exd5 cxd5 5.Bb5+ Bd7 6.Bxd7+ Nxd7 7.0-0 Bd6 8.d3 Ne7 9.Nc3 0-0 10.Ng5 h6 11.Nf3 f5 12.h3 g5 13.Nxg5 hxg5 14.Bxg5 Rf7 15.Nxd5 Qf8 16.Qf3 Qg7 17.Nxe7+ Bxe7 18.Bxe7 Rxe7 19.Qxf5 Rf8 20.Qe4 Nf6 21.Qe2 Nd5 22.Rae1 Rf6 23.Kh2 Rg6 24.Qe4 Nf4 25.g3 Ne6 [25...Qh7] 26.a3 Nd4 27.f4 [27.c3] 27...Rxg3 28.Qd5+ [28.fxe5] 28...Kh8 29.Rxe5 Nf3+ 30.Rxf3 Rg2+ 31.Kh1 Rg1+ 32.Kh2 Qg2# 0-1

(7) George Atwood - Francois Andre Philidor
London London ENG, 1795
1.d4 e6 2.f4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.c3 Nc6 5.Nf3 Qb6 6.Bd3 Nh6 7.Qb3 c4 8.Qxb6 axb6 9.Bc2 b5 10.Na3 b4 11.Nb5 Ra5 12.a4 Bd7 13.b3 Nb8 14.Bb2 Be7 15.0-0 Bxb5 16.axb5 Rxb5 17.Ra8 0-0 18.bxc4 dxc4 19.Be4 Nd7 20.Rxf8+ Bxf8 21.Ng5 bxc3 22.Bxc3 Rb3 23.Rc1 [23.Rf3] 23...Ba3 24.Rc2 Ng4 25.Nxe6?? [25.Bxh7+] 25...Rb1+ 0-1

(8) George Atwood - Francois Andre Philidor [C37]
London, 09.02.1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.d4 gxf3 6.Qxf3 Nc6 7.c3 Qf6 8.e5 Qxe5+?? [8...Qh4+] 9.Kd1?? [9.dxe5] 9...Qf6 10.Re1+ Be7 11.Bxf4 d6 12.Qe3 0-1

(9) Francois Andre Philidor - George Atwood
London, 12.02.1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 Nc6 3.Nf3 Bc5 4.c3 f6 5.Bc4 Nge7 6.Qe2 d6 7.f5 Bd7 8.b4 Bb6 9.a4 a6 10.d3 g6 11.g4 h5 12.g5 gxf5 13.gxf6 Ng6 14.Bg5 Qc8 15.0-0-0 f4 16.Bb3 Kf8 17.d4 Bg4 18.Qc4 Nd8 19.dxe5 Be6 20.Rd5 Be3+ 21.Kb2 c6 22.Qe2 cxd5 23.exd5 dxe5 24.dxe6 Nxe6 25.Qd3 Qe8 [25...Kf7] 26.Bxe6 Qxe6? [26...Rd8] 27.Qxg6 1-0

(10) Francois Andre Philidor - George Atwood
London, 13.02.1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 Nc6 3.Nf3 Bc5 4.Bc4 d6 5.Ng5 exf4 6.Qh5 Qe7 7.Nxf7 Nf6 8.Nxd6+ Kd8 9.Nf7+ Ke8 10.Qf3 Nd4 11.Qxf4 Nxc2+ 12.Kf1 Rf8 13.Rb1 Nxe4 14.Bd3 Rxf7 0-1

(11) NN - George Atwood [C37]
London 5 London 5, 1798
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.Ne5 Nh6 6.d4 d6 7.Nd3 Qh4+ 8.Kf1 f3 9.g3 Qh3+ 10.Kf2 Qg2+ 11.Ke3 Nf5+ 12.exf5 Bh6+ 13.Nf4 Bxf5 14.Bd3 Bxf4+ 15.Kxf4 Bxd3 16.cxd3 Nc6 17.Qf1 Qc2 18.Qd1 Qf2 19.Re1+? [19.Qe1+] 19...Kd7 20.Re4 [20.Be3] 20...Nxd4 21.Be3 Ne2+ 22.Kxg4 Rhg8+ 23.Bg5 Qxh2 0-1

(12) Joseph Wilson - George Atwood [C37]
London 5 London 5, 1798
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.Ne5 Nh6 6.0-0 d6 7.Bxf7+ Nxf7 8.Nxf7 Kxf7 9.Rxf4+ Kg8 10.d4 h5 11.Nc3 c6 12.Qd3 Bh6 13.Rf2 Bxc1 14.Rxc1 Qe8 15.Rcf1 Nd7 16.Qe3 Kg7 17.Rf7+ Kg6 18.R7f5 Kh7 19.Qg5 Rf8 20.a3 Rxf5 21.Rxf5 Nf8 22.Rf6 Ng6 23.Rxd6 Bd7 24.Qxh5+ Kg7 25.e5 Qf7 26.Ne4 Qf5 27.Ng5? [27.Nf6] 27...Rh8 28.Rxd7+ Qxd7 29.Ne6+ Qxe6 30.Qg5 Rf8 31.Qd2 Qf5 32.Qe2 Nf4 33.Qd2 Nh3+ 0-1

(13) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1798
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.Nc3 c6 8.Ngxe4 dxe4 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qe5 Rg8 11.Bxh6 Bxh6 12.Rd1 Qe7 13.Bc4 b5 14.Bb3 a5? [14...Bg7] 15.Nxe4 a4 16.Nf6+ Kf8 17.Nxg8 Kxg8 18.Rd8+ Qxd8 19.e7+ Qd5 20.e8Q+ Bf8 21.Qh8+ Kxh8 22.Qxf8+ 1-0

(14) George Atwood - Campbell [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Be6 5.Nxe6 fxe6 6.Qh5+ Kd7 7.Qb5+ Kc8 8.Bc4 Qe7 9.Qb3 d5 10.exd5 exd5+ 11.Be2 c6 12.Nc3 Nf6 13.Bg5 Nbd7 14.0-0-0 Nc5 15.Qa3 Qe5 16.Bxf6 Qxf6 17.Kb1 Qxf2? [17...Bd6] 18.Rhf1 Qxg2 19.Rxf8+ Rxf8 20.Qxc5 Kc7 21.Nb5+ Kd7 22.Qd6+ Ke8 23.Nc7+ Kf7 24.Qe6# 1-0

(15) George Atwood - John M Bruehl [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.g3 c6 8.Bh3 Na6 9.0-0 Nc7 10.f4 Bc5+ 11.Kg2 0-0 12.f5 Qf6 13.c3 Kh8 14.g4 Ng8 15.Bf4 Ne8 16.Nf7+ Rxf7 17.exf7 Qxf7 18.Be5 Bd7 19.g5 Qe7 20.Bf4 Nd6 21.Bc1? [21.b4] 21...Rf8 22.f6 Bxh3+ 23.Kxh3 gxf6 24.gxf6 Qe6+ 25.Kg2 Rxf6 26.Bf4 Rg6+ 27.Bg3 Nf5 28.Qe1 Nxg3 29.hxg3 Bd6 0-1

(16) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.Nc3 c6 8.Ngxe4 dxe4 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qe5 Rg8 11.Bxh6 Bxh6 12.Rd1 Qe7 13.Bc4 b5? 14.Bb3 a5 [14...Bg7] 15.Nxe4 a4 16.Nf6+ Kf8 17.Nxg8 Kxg8 18.Rd8+ Qxd8 19.e7+ 1-0

(17) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.Nc3 c6 8.Ngxe4 dxe4 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qe5 Rg8 11.Bxh6 Bxh6 12.Rd1 Qe7 13.Bc4 Bg7 14.Qxe4 Bxc3+ 15.bxc3 Rf8 16.0-0 Rf6 17.Rfe1 Qc5 18.Rd7 Qxf2+ 19.Kh1 Rf4? [19...b5] 20.Qe5 1-0

(18) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.Nc3 c6 8.Ngxe4 dxe4 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qe5 Rg8 11.Bxh6 Bxh6 12.Rd1 Qe7 13.Bc4 Bg7 14.Qxe4 Rf8? [14...Bxc3+] 15.Nb5 cxb5? [15...Rf5] 16.Bxb5+ Nc6 17.Bxc6+ bxc6 18.Qxc6+ Bd7 19.Qxa8+ Qd8 20.exd7+ Ke7 21.Qe4+ 1-0

(19) Joseph Atwood - Jonathan Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Bg4 4.dxe5 Bxf3 5.Qxf3 dxe5 6.Bc4 Qd7 7.Qb3 c6 8.a4 Bd6 9.0-0 Nf6 10.Nc3 0-0 11.Be3 Kh8 12.Rad1 Nh5? [12...Qc7] 13.Rxd6 Qxd6 14.Qxb7 Nd7 15.Rd1 Qb8 16.Rxd7 Qxb7 17.Rxb7 f5 18.Rxa7 Rab8 19.h3 Rxb2 20.Bc5 Rg8 21.Bd3 g5 22.Bd6 1-0

(20) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.Nc3 c6 8.Ngxe4 dxe4 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qe5 Rg8 11.Bxh6 Bxh6 12.Rd1 Qe7 13.Bc4 a6 14.0-0 Bg7 15.Qxe4 Bxc3 16.bxc3 Rf8 17.Rfe1 Qf6 18.e7 Bd7 19.exf8Q+ Kxf8 20.Rxd7 Nxd7 21.Re3 Nc5 22.Qf3 [22.Qg4] 22...Qxf3 23.Rxf3+ Kg7 1-0

(21) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C41]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 f5 4.dxe5 fxe4 5.Ng5 d5 6.e6 Nh6 7.Nc3 c6 8.Ngxe4 dxe4 9.Qh5+ g6 10.Qe5 Rg8 11.Bxh6 Bxh6 12.Rd1 Qe7 13.Bc4 b5 14.Bb3 a5 15.a4 Bg7 16.Qxe4 Bxc3+ 17.bxc3 bxa4 18.Ba2 Bb7 19.0-0 c5 20.Qc4 Bc6 21.Rfe1 Ra7? [21...Kf8] 22.Qf4 Na6 23.Qf7+ Qxf7 24.exf7+ Kf8 25.fxg8Q# 1-0

(22) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C53]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.0-0 d6 6.d4 Bb6 7.dxe5 Nxe4 8.Qd5 Be6 9.Qxe4 d5 10.Bxd5 Bxd5 11.Qg4 g6 12.Bg5 Bxf3 13.gxf3 Qd7 [13...Qd5] 14.Bf6 Rg8 15.Na3 h5 16.Qg3 Qf5 17.Rad1 g5 18.h4 g4 19.f4 Ne7 20.Rd3 c5 21.Nc4 Qe6 22.Nd6+ Kf8 23.Bxe7+ Kxe7 24.Rfd1 Qxa2 25.R3d2 Rad8 26.Re1 Qb3 27.f5 a5 28.e6 f6 29.Nc8+ Rxc8 30.Qd6+ Ke8 31.Qd7+ Kf8 32.Qf7# 1-0

(23) George Atwood - Joseph Wilson [C53]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 d6 5.b4 Bb6 6.a4 a6 7.Qb3 Qf6 8.0-0 Be6 9.Bxe6 fxe6 10.Bb2 Nge7 11.Na3 0-0 12.Rad1 g5 13.d4 g4 14.dxe5 dxe5 15.Ne1 h5 16.Nd3 h4 17.c4 Nd4 18.Qa2 Ng6 19.Rd2 g3 20.c5 gxh2+ 21.Kh1 Ba7 22.Nxe5 Qxe5 23.Rxd4 Nf4 24.Rd7 Qxe4 25.Rg7+ Kh8 26.Rg4+ Kh7 27.Rxh4+ Kg6 28.a5 e5 29.f3 Qe2 30.Rxf4 Kg7 31.Qc4 Qxb2 32.Rxf8 Rxf8 33.Nc2 Rf4 34.Qd3 Rf7 [34...e4] 35.Rd1 Kf6 36.Qd8+ Kg7 1-0

(24) Cotter - George Atwood [C23]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 c6 3.Qf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 a6 5.a4 Bb4 6.Nge2 d5 7.exd5 Bg4 8.Qe3 0-0 9.f3 Bf5 10.Na2 cxd5 11.Nxb4 dxc4 12.c3 a5 13.Na2 Nd5 14.Qc5 Bd3 15.Kf2 f5 16.b3 b6 17.Qb5 Qc7 18.Qxd5+ Kh8 19.Qxa8 Qc5+ 20.Kf1 Nc6 21.Qb7 e4 22.Bb2 exf3 23.gxf3 Re8 24.Nac1 Qd5 25.Kg2? [25.Nxd3] 25...Bxe2 26.Nxe2 Rxe2+ 27.Kg1 Qc5+ 28.Kf1 Qf2# 0-1

(25) Joseph Wilson - George Atwood [B21]
Casual London, 1801
1.e4 c5 2.f4 Nc6 3.Nf3 e6 4.c3 d5 5.e5 Be7 6.d4 Nh6 7.Be3 b6 8.Nbd2 Bh4+ 9.Bf2 Bxf2+ 10.Kxf2 0-0 11.Bd3 f6 12.g3 fxe5 13.dxe5 Bb7 14.Qc2 g6 15.Bxg6 Qe7 16.Bh5 d4 17.Ne4 Nf5 18.Nf6+ Kh8 19.g4 Ne3 20.Qd2 Nc4 21.Qc2? [21.Qe2] 21...N6xe5 22.fxe5 Nxe5 23.g5 Rxf6 24.gxf6 Qxf6 25.Qe2 Rf8 26.Rae1 Qh4+ 27.Kf1 Nxf3 28.Bxf3 Rxf3+ 29.Kg1 Rg3+ 30.hxg3 Qxh1+ 31.Kf2 Qg2# 0-1

(26) Joseph Wilson - George Atwood [D20]
Casual London, 1801
1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.e3 e5 4.dxe5 Qxd1+ 5.Kxd1 Nc6 6.f4 Bg4+ 7.Be2 0-0-0+ 8.Bd2 f5 9.Bxg4 fxg4 10.Ne2 Nb4 11.a3 Nd3 12.Kc2 Bc5 13.Rf1 Nh6 14.Ng3 Rhf8 15.Nc3 a6 16.Nce4 Ba7 17.Ng5 Rfe8 18.Nxh7 Nf7 19.Ne4 Rh8 20.Nhg5 Nxg5 21.Nxg5 Rxh2 22.e6 Nxb2 23.e7 Rxd2+ 24.Kxd2 Rxg2+ 25.Kc3 Kd7 26.Rab1 Na4+ 27.Kxc4 b5+ 28.Kd3 c5 29.Rbd1 Kxe7 30.Ke4 Nc3+ 31.Kf5 Nxd1 32.Rxd1 Re2 33.e4 g3 34.e5 g2 35.e6 Rd2 36.Rxd2 g1Q 37.Rd7+ Ke8 38.Rxg7 Qb1+ 39.Ne4 Qd3 40.Rg8+ Ke7 41.Rg7+ Kd8 42.Rd7+ Qxd7 43.exd7 Kxd7 44.Kg6 Ke7? [44...b4] 45.f5 c4 46.f6+ Kf8 47.f7 c3 48.Ng5 1-0

(27) Cotter - Atwood,George [C23]
London, 08.02.1795
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 c6 3.Qf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 a6 5.a4 Bb4 6.Nge2 d5 7.exd5 Bg4 8.Qe3 0-0 9.f3 Bf5 10.Na2 cxd5 11.Nxb4 dxc4 12.c3 a5 13.Na2 Nd5 14.Qc5 Bd3 15.Kf2 f5 16.b3 b6 17.Qb5 Qc7 18.Qxd5+ Kh8 19.Qxa8 Qc5+ 20.Kf1 Nc6 21.Qb7 e4 22.Bb2 exf3 23.gxf3 Re8 24.Nac1 Qd5 25.Kg2? [25.Nxd3] 25...Bxe2 26.Nxe2 Rxe2+ 27.Kg1 Qc5+ 28.Kf1 Qf2# 0-1

(28) Douglass,G - Atwood,George
London, 26.06.1795
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.c3 Nc6 5.f4 Nh6 6.Be3 Nf5 7.Bf2 h5 8.Nf3 Qb6 9.b3 cxd4 10.cxd4 Bb4+ 11.Nbd2 Nfxd4 12.Nxd4 Nxd4 13.Be2 g6 14.0-0 Bc5 15.Rc1 Nxe2+ 16.Qxe2 Bxf2+ 17.Qxf2 Qxf2+ 18.Rxf2 Rh7 19.Nf3 Re7 20.Rfc2 Bd7 21.Rc7 Bc6 22.Rxe7+ Kxe7 23.Kf2 Rf8 24.g3 Rd8 25.Nd4 Rc8 26.h4 Kf7 0-1

(29) Atwood,George - Harrowby [C37]
London, 02.02.1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.d4 gxf3 6.Qxf3 Qf6 7.e5 Qc6 8.Bd5 Qxc2 9.Bxb7 Bb4+ 10.Kf1? [10.Nc3] 10...Qc4+ 11.Kf2 Qxd4+ 12.Kf1 Qc4+ 13.Kf2 Bc5+ 14.Ke1 Qxc1+ 0-1



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