Francois A. D. Philidor
Francois-Andre Danican Philidor (pronounced dah-nee-kan fee-lee-door) was born on September 7, 1726 in Dreux (45 miles west of Paris), Eure-et-Loir, France (the house is still preserved and there is a street named Philidor in Dreux and in Paris). He belonged to a family which had been connected for three generations with the band of the Chapel-Royal in Versailles. He was baptized on October 16, 1727.
His grandfather was Jean Danican Philidor (1620-1679), a musician at the Grande Ecurie in Paris. The original name of his family was Danican (D'Anican) and was of Scottish origin (Duncan). Philidor was a later addition to the family name. One story of the origin of Philidor was that Jean Danican was given the nickname of Philidor by Louis XIII (1601-1643) because his oboe playing reminded the king of an Italian virtuoso named Filidori. Filidori was an Italian wood-wind player. The king playfully used the word Philidor in praise of his playing. The king was quoted as saying, "I have recovered my Filidori...I have found a second Philidor!" Filidori had preceded Danican in that section of wood-wind players of the Versailles orchestra. The French "Philo d'or" means lover of gold.
The problem with this story is that no scholar has ever discovered a musician named Filidori.
The other suggestion is that the name derived from the Scottish world Filedoir, which meant poet or bard or court entertainer. Jean Danican (originally Duncan) moved from Scotland to France, where the name Duncan was changed to Danican, and his music profession turned into the surname of Philidor.
An alternative theory is that Philidor is a French version of the Gaelic 'Filidheach,' meaning 'of bardic clan.' (source: Hooper & Whyld, "Philidor," The Oxford Companion to Chess, 2nd edition, 1992, p. 303)
Another more plausible suggestion is that the origin of Philidor may be 'fidiloir,' a fiddler or violinist, which is what the early Danicans played.
Michel (Michael) Danican (1600?-1659) was Andre Danican Philidor's great-uncle. He was also a renowned oboist. In 1650, Michel Danican invented the oboe (hautbois) by modifying an instrument called the shawm, making it narrower and putting the reed near the end by the player's lips.
Andre Danican Philidor (1647-1730), Francois-Andre Danican Philidor's father, was the librarian of the Royal Musical Library at Versailles (Garde de la Bibliotheque de la Musicque du Roi). He was known as Philidor l'aine (Philidor the Elder). He was a member of the Grande Edurie military band (played the oboe and crumhorn) and later performed at the Royal Chapel Court. He was an official musician of the court of King Louis XIV (1638-1643). Andre Danican composed a number of military marches and operas. He composed the music to Le canal de Versailles, Le marriage de la Couture avec le gross Cathos, La Princess de Crete, La vaisseau marchand, Mascarade des Savoyards, and Mascarde du roi de la Chine. He had 23 children (Louise, Anne Margaret, Alexandre, Francois, Madeleine, Antoinette, Anne, Andre, Michel, Marie Augustine, Marie Therese, Helene, Danican, Francois, Pierre, Louise, Madelaine, Jeanne, Elisabeth, Marie Anne, Francois Andre, Marie Marguerite, and Francoise).
Andre Danican Philidor's nephew was Pierre Danican Philidor (1681-1731), a French composer and musician. His father was Jacques Danican Philidor, the younger brother of Andre.
His mother was Anne Elisabeth Leroy (1696-1760).
Jacques Danican Philidor (1657-1708) was the younger brother of Andre Danican Philidor. He was known as Philidor le cadet (Philidor the Younger). He was also a musician. Jacques played the oboe and violin for the King's Chapel.
Anne Danican Philidor (1681-1728) was Francois-Andre Danican Philidor's oldest stepbrother. He founded the "Concert Spirituel," a series of public concerts held in the palace of the Tuilleries in Paris from 1725 to 1791. His odd name of Anne, for a male, came from his godfather, Anne, Duke of Noailles.
Jacques Francois Mouret (1787-1837), a French chess master, was Philidor's great-nephew.
Andre Danican Philidor was 79 when Francois-Andre was born. Francois-Andre was the 20th child of Andre and the first son of his third wife, Elizabeth De Roy. Andre married her when he was 72 and she was 19. Andre died at Dreux at the age of 83.
On October 8, 1728, Philidor's oldest stepbrother, Anne Danican Philidor, died.
In 1732 at the age of six, Francois-Andre (he later discarded the Francois) joined the choir of the Chapel-Royal at Versailles. As a pageboy in the royal chapel, he studied music with Andre Campra (1660-1744), one of the leading French opera composers of this period. Philidor's father had died earlier and was living on a royal pension. The young Philidor was recognized as a musical prodigy among the 80 musicians. Philidor's admission was four years earlier than the age prescribed by the rules of the Chapel.
In 1736 at the age of 10, Francois-Andre was exposed to chess by the musicians who played chess during spells of inactivity. King Louis XV (1710-1774) wanted to listen to the choir almost every day during Mass). There were about 80 musicians, and all of the musicians were obliged to attend daily and had to wait for the king. Cards were forbidden to pass the time, so chess was played on a long table that had 6 inlaid chess-boards. He learned the game by watching the band members play. He later visited the Cafe de la Regence in Paris and spent much of his time playing chess there. (source: Tomlinson, Amusements in Chess, 1845, p. 80)
After watching some of the musicians playing chess, the young Philidor offered to play an old musician when the musician complained that his chess opponent did not show up. The old man laughably agreed, expecting an easy victory of the 10-year-old. But young Philidor played a good game and finally checkmated the old man. Philidor then ran from the room after delivering checkmate, fearing the consequences of his opponent's wounded pride. (source: Hooper & Whyld, "Philidor," The Oxford Companion to Chess, 2nd edition, p. 303
In 1737, at the age of 11, his first music composition, a religious piece called a motet, was played before King Louis XV. The king rewarded Philidor with a gift of five louis d'or coins (over $200 in today's currency). This encouraged Philidor to compose four more motets. (source: Twiss, Chess, 1787, p. 150)
In late 1740, Philidor left the Chapel Royal choir when his voice changed. When he left the Chapel, he was reputed to be the most skilled chess player of the band. In Paris, he earned a living by copying music and giving music lessons. He also wrote several motets, a sacred vocal musical composition. They were performed in Paris at the Concert Spirituel, which were favorably received. The Concert Spirituel was established by Philidor's oldest brother, Anne, in 1726, who was its first director.
In 1740, Philidor started playing chess regularly at the Cafe de la Regence (originally called the Cafe de la Place du Palais-Royal when it opened in 1681).
In the 1740s, Philidor met Denis Diderot (1713-1784), who called him 'Philidor le subtil' in Le Neveu de Rameau (Rameau's Nephew, written in the 1760s). Philidor tutored Diderot's daughter in music.
In 1741 Philidor was being instructed by M. de Kermur, Sire de Legal (1702-1792), also known as Legall, the leading French chess player. Legal initially gave Philidor rook odds. For the next three years Legal taught Philidor until Philidor was too strong for his teacher.
In 1741, Philidor encountered Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) at the Cafe de la Regence. Rousseau was not a very strong chess player. He played Philidor in 1741 and in 1745 at the Cafe de la Regence. Rousseau and Philidor were friends, at least for a short while.
Around 1743, Philidor started playing blindfold chess. Philidor told his teacher, Legal, that he calculated moves, and even whole games, at night in bed. Philidor's first opponent while playing blindfolded was the abbe Chenard, which Philidor won.
In August 1743, one of Philidor's motets, musique latine, inaugurated the Concert Spirituel on the Feast of Assumption.
In late 1744, Philidor, age 18, played two chess games blindfolded simultaneously in public in Paris (drawing one and losing one). This was the first time that blindfold play against two opponents was recorded. This performance was chronicled in the article on chess by the French scholar Chevalier Louis de Jaucourt (1704-1779) for the great Encyclopedie of Diderot and D'Alembert in 1751. Philidor also played chess with Voltaire (1694-1778) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), both persistent but weak chess players. (source, Murray, A History of Chess, 1913, p. 861)
On March 22, 1745, Philidor played chess with Jacques Rousseau and helped Rousseau with is first opera-ballet, Les Muses gallants. Philidor's contribution was praised by Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764), one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century. Philidor's overture was also praised by the art critic Friedrich Melchoir, Baron von Grimm (1723-1807). However, Rousseau's opera was a disaster and complained that Philidor failed to commit himself to the work (only showing up a few days to work on it). (source: Rousseau, The Confessions, 1782, p. 384)
In 1745, Philidor gave a blindfold exhibition at the salon of farmer-general, Alexandre Jean-Joseph Leriche de la Popeliniere (1693-1762). He was France's greatest patron of music during this period. In attendance were Jacques de Vaucanson (1709-1782), the Duc de Richelieu, the painter La Tour, and Diderot.
In December 1745, Philidor went to Rotterdam to assist in presenting concerts with the violinist Francesco Geminiani (1687-1762), and Miss Lanza, a 13-year-old virtuoso harpsichord player. Twelve concerts had been planned and Philidor was to sing (he played no musical instruments). However, Miss Lanza died of smallpox while still in Paris. Later, the concerts were cancelled because of the girl's death and he was stranded in the Netherlands with no money and a stranger in a foreign city.
In 1746, Philidor, age 19, supported himself by teaching and playing chess and Polish draughts (10 by 10 checker board) in the coffee-houses of Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Philidor showed just as much superiority at checkers, but he did not stake as much pride on it as he did on chess.
In 1746, Philidor later moved to The Hague where he made a living giving chess lessons to English army officers. While at The Hague, Philidor became acquainted with Colonel la Deves and with Karl August (1728-1763), Prince of Waldeck, who then commanded the Dutch army. Both were chess players and took chess lessons from Philidor. The English officers suggested that Philidor could make a living playing chess in England.
In late 1746, Philidor may have visited Culloden, Scotland and England with his friend, General Henry Seymore Conway (1721-1795).
In 1747, Philidor was back in Rotterdam. Philidor saw in the possession of a coffee-house keeper, a set of solid silver chess men, which were made for Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663-1736). Philidor said it was the most valuable chess set he had seen. (source: Twiss, Chess, 1787, p. 3)
In 1747, Philidor went to London and started playing chess at Slaughter's coffee-house (the building was demolished in 1844). There, he beat Phillip Stamma (1705-1755) of Aleppo and Sir Abraham Janssen (1720-1795), two of England's top chess players, in chess matches. Stamma was the inventor of the algebraic notation system.
On April 1, 1747, Philidor attended a thanksgiving service at St. Paul's Cathedral in London where the first performance of George Frideric Handel's (1685-1759) oratorio, Judas Maccabeus, took place.
Philidor met and was a friend of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), the English writer. He also met and was a friend of Charles Burney (1726-1814), the English music historian and composer.
In 1747, Philidor challenged Stamma to a 10-game match and he stipulated that Stamma was to have White in all games and that draws were counted victories for Stamma. Philidor won 8 games, lost 1, and drew 1. Stamma worked for the British government as a translator of dispatches in the Oriental languages.
In 1747, Philidor beat Janssen with 4 wins and 1 loss. Janssen was then the best chess player in England. (source: "Biographical Sketch of Philidor," The Saturday Magazine, June 19, 1841, pp. 237-239, and "Philidoriana," The Chess Player's Chronicle, 1879, p. 50)
In 1748 Philidor, age 22, returned to Holland from England and started writing L'analyse du jeu des Eschecs (Analysis of the Game of Chess). Philidor went out to find subscribers for the book before it was published to pay for publishing costs.
On October 18, 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed, ending the War of the Austrian Succession. Lord Sandwich was the chief British negotiator for much of the talks.
In 1748, Philidor travelled to Aix-la-Chapelle (now Aachen, Germany). About this time, he received an invitation from John Montagu (1718-1792), Lord Sandwich, to visit the English camp at Eyndhoven, a village between Maestricht and Bois-le-Duc in the Netherlands, where he met and played chess with Prince William, the Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765), the son of King George II.
Lord Sandwich, subscribed to 10 copies. The Duke of Cumberland subscribed to 50 copies! The English army officers subscribed to 119 copies. The moves were written out as full sentences. This was the first real chess book since Greco's manuscripts were compiled and printed in the 1600s.
In February 1749, a London newspaper advertised a concert series, mentioning Philidor's Coffee House. (source: General Advertiser, Feb 17, 1749)
In 1749, Philidor returned to England. 433 copies of his L'Analyze Des Echecs: Contenant Une Nouvelle Methode Pour apprendre en peu de tems à se perfectioner dans ce Noble Jeu were published in French in London. The book was dedicated to the Duke of Cumberland (Le Duc de Cumberland). (https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1050358s/f2.image) Two more French reprints occurred in 1749 and an English version followed in 1750. A third edition was printed in 1790. The book was the first chess book translated into Russian (1824) and was one of the favorite books of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). The book analyzed 9 games (fictitious) and 10 variations of games. Philidor favored the Bishop's Opening and frowned upon the King's Knight Opening as weak. The book has gone through more than 70 editions, 4 in the first year.
The 1749 French edition of Philidor's book, published in London, has the earliest appearance of Philidor's most famous saying, that pawns are the soul of chess. The first occurrence was on page xiii of L'Analyze des Echecs. '...les Pions: Ils sont l'ame des Echecs.'
Philidor's chess book was the first chess book that organized the openings, that explained the middlegame, the overall strategy of chess, and the importance of pawn formation. In his book he made the observation that 'les Pions: ils sont l'ame des Echecs' (the Pawns: they are the life of chess). This phrase has become "the pawns are the soul of chess." His book was also the first to examine the rook and bishop vs. rook endgame. It also had some analysis of 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6, the Philidor's Defense.
From his book:
Philidor — NN, 1749, 1. e4 e5 2. Bc4 Bc5 3. c3 Nf6 4. d4 exd4 5. cxd4 Bb6 6. Nc3 O-O 7. Nge2 c6 8. Bd3 d5 9. e5 Ne8 10. Be3 f6 11. Qd2 fxe5 12. dxe5 Be6 13. Nf4 Qe7 14. Bxb6 axb6 15. O-O Nd7 16. Nxe6 Qxe6 17. f4 Nc7 18. Rae1 g6 19. h3 d4 20. Ne4 h6 21. b3 b5 22. g4 Nd5 23. Ng3 Ne3 24. Rxe3 dxe3 25. Qxe3 Rxa2 26. Re1 Qxb3 27. Qe4 Qe6 28. f5 gxf5 29. gxf5 Qd5 30. Qxd5+ cxd5 31. Bxb5 Nb6 32. f6 Rb2 33. Bd3 Kf7 34. Bf5 Nc4 35. Nh5 Rg8+ 36. Bg4 Nd2 37. e6+ Kg6 38. f7 Rf8 39. Nf4+ Kg7 40. Bh5 1-0
In 1750, Philidor visited the home of the French ambassador Gaston Pierre de Levis (1699-1757), the Duke de Mirepoix. The duke was a patron of chess and gave a weekly dinner to the lovers of chess, in which he was also an expert chess player.
In November 1750, the first English edition of Philidor's book, Chess Analysed; or Instructions By which a Perfect Knowledge of this Noble Game May in a short time be acquir'd, was published in London by J. Nourse and P. Vaillant. On pages ix and x, it was written, 'I mean how to play the Pawns: They are the very Life of this Game.' The book had no dedication or list of subscribers like his first edition in 1749. The book was reprinted in 1762 and 1791. The English edition was priced at three shillings. The 1749 French edition was priced at 3 shillings, 6 pence (about $30 in today's currency).
In early 1751, Philidor was at Windsor with the Duke of Cumberland. The Duke gave Philidor a pension of 200 British pounds per year for Philidor's efforts of teaching chess.
In 1751 Philidor left England for Potsdam, Prussia, by invitation from Frederick the Great (1712-1786), who took great interest in Philidor. At Potsdam. Frederick met Philidor, but never played chess with Philidor himself. Frederick did play chess with other notables, such as the Marquis de Varennes, whom Philidor could beat at knight odds.
Philidor then visited Berlin where he played 3 blindfold games simultaneously for the first time, winning them all. According to some sources, he repeated the feat of playing 3 blindfold games simultaneously several times while in Berlin.
In July 1751, the mathematician Leonard Euler (1707-1783), a chess player, may have met Philidor during his visit to Berlin, but may have not had an opportunity to play chess with Philidor. Euler did mention Philidor in a letter and called him a great player. Euler went on to make the first serious mathematical analysis of the Knight's Tour on a chessboard in 1758. Philidor failed to master the Knight's Tour during his lifetime.
In 1752, Philidor left Potsdam and spent 8 months at Arolsen (today Bad Arolsen), Germany. Philidor was the guest of the Prince of Waldeck. Philidor also spent time at the Court of the Landgrave of Hess-Cassel in Germany for three weeks.
In 1753, Philidor returned to England and lived at No. 20 Meard Street in Soho.
On February 23, 1753, Philidor promoted nine of his own works in a concert given in London. It was billed as "Mr. Philidor's Concert." He gave an overture, four arias, a duet, and three choruses at the Great Room at 21 Dean Street in Soho. One of the singer's in Philidor's concerts was Gaetano Guadagni (1728-1792), a famous Italian mezzo-soprano castrato singer.
A London newspaper wrote that after a rehearsal for one of Philidor's concerts, he "is in a fair way of making the same figure in Musick as doth at chess." (source: General Advertiser, Feb 23, 1753)
In December 1753, Philidor set William Congreve's (1670-1729) Ode to Harmony, in honor of St. Cecilia's Day, to music. St. Cecilia is the patroness of musicians.
On December 9, 1753, Philidor placed a notice in the London Public Advertiser:
"Mr Philidor begs leave to acquaint the public, that in order to justify himself of the calumny spread about town, that he was not the author of the Latin Music he gave last year, as likewise to convince the world that the Art of Music has been at all times his constant study and application, and Chess only his diversion, he has undertaken to set an Ode to Music, in praise of harmony, wrote by the celebrated Mr. Congreve."
On January 31, 1754, Philidor's Ode to Harmony was performed at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket. Handel was present at the opening performance. He commented on the music and approved of the choruses, but thought the melody was defective.
In 1754, a German edition of Philidor's book was published in Strasburg. Its title was Die Kunst im Schachspiel eitn Meister zu warden.....gewiesen nach den neuesten Mustern des beruhmten und itzelbenden grossen Schachspielmeisters in England. It was reprinted in 1764 and 1771.
In November 1754, Philidor, age 28, returned to Paris after being gone for 9 years. He started composing music again. He did not return to England until 1772, 18 years later.
In 1754, he wrote a motet called Lauda Jerusalem.
In 1755, he applied unsuccessfully for the post of court composer at Versailles and Master of the Chapel Royal, where two new motets of his composition, including Lauda Jerusalem, were performed. A rumor had started that nobody could be a chess master and compose good music, so his church music was not really his own. His church music was not accepted by the French royalty because Philidor added an Italian influence, so he turned to comedy opera. Marie Leszczynska (1725-1768), Queen of France and wife of Louis XV, thought his motet, Lauda Jerusalem, was "too Italian." It had been sung in her presence at Versailles.
In 1755, Philidor wrote L'art de la modulation (Six quatuors), which was regarded as a groundbreaking and innovative series of chamber works. He also wrote his chamber cantata, L'Ete. These are Philidor's only known chamber pieces.
In 1755 he beat de Legal in a chess match at the Cafe de la Regence. At the time, de Legal was at the height of his strength. (source: Allen and von der Lasa, The Life of Philidor, 1865, p. 51)
In 1756, with the composer Jean-Louis Laruette (1731-1792), Philidor composed the music for the three-act opera comique Le Diable a quatre, ou la Double Metamophose. It premiered at the Theatre de la Foire in St. Laurent in Paris on August 19, 1756. It also played at the St. Germain fair on Feb 12, 1757. The opera was considered a failure.
In December 1756, Philidor composed Le Retour du Printemps (The Return of Spring).
In 1757, Philidor was rebuffed by the Paris Opera, especially by Fracois Rebel (1701-1775) a major French composer and opera director.
In October 1757, he composed a Te Deum, a Christian hymn of praise, for the birth of Charles X (1757-1836), Count of Artois and, later, king of France.
In 1758, Philidor was urged to undertake a regular comic opera.
In 1758, Philidor composed the opera comique Les Pèlerins de la Mecque (The Pilgrims of Mecca). It premiered at the Theatre de la Foire St. Laurent. The director of the theatre was Corbi, who encouraged Philidor to compose more music for opera comiques.
In 1759, Philidor composed the music for Blaise le Savetier (Blaise the Cobbler), a one-act opera comique, which first premiered at the Theatre de l'Opera Comique de la Foire of Saint Germain, Paris, on March 9, 1759. The text was by Michel-Jean Sedaine (1719-1797), based on a work by La Fontaine. The opera had such a run that Philidor abandoned church music, and applied himself wholly to the stage and opera.
In 1759, he composed Diligam Te, motet a grand choer.
In 1759, he composed the music for the opera comique L'huître et les plaideurs, ou Le tribunal de la chicane (The Oyster and the Pleaders, or the Court of the Chicane). The text was written by Sedaine. It premiered at the annual fair of St. Laurent in on September 17, 1759.
On February 13, 1760, at age 33, Philidor married Angelique Heinriette Elisabeth Richer (1736-1809) in Paris. She was the daughter of a respectable composer. He had 5 sons and 2 daughters with her. He never taught chess to his children. The children may have learned chess on their own. In one anecdote, Philidor entered the house and saw two of his children playing chess. After watching the game after a few moves were made, he said to his wife, "Ma chere amie, our children have fairly succeeded in making chess a game of chance." (source, Allen, The Life of Philidor, 1865, p. 54)
Philidor's wife sang, occasionally as a concert soloist, and played keyboard instrument. Her three brothers were all musicians. Often, Philidor's wife, and sometimes one or more of his brothers-in-law, rehearsed Philidor's musical compositions for him so he could hear how they sounded, since he himself neither played and no longer sang. (source: Metzner, Crescendo of the Virtuoso, 1998)
In 1760, he composed the music for the opera comique Le quiproquo, ou Le volage fixe (The Misunderstanding, or the Fixed Flight). It premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne on March 6, 1760.
In 1760, he composed the music for the opera comique Le Soldat Magicien (The Magician Soldier). It premiered at the Fair of St. Laurent in on August 14, 1760.
In 1761, he composed the music for the opera comique Le jardinier et son seigneur (The Gardener and his lord), which first premiered at the Fair of St. Germain on February 18, 1761.
In 1761 he composed the music opera for the opera comique Le marechal ferrant (The Blacksmith). It was first performed by the Opera-Comique at the Theatre de la Foire St Laurent in Paris on August 22, 1761. It was later performed at the Hotel de Bourgogne on February 10, 1762. It was also performed for the royal court at Faintainebleau on November 3, 1762. It became one of Philidor's most popular works. It was the first opera ever to be performed in Russia in 1764.
In 1761, Philidor composed the music for the two-act opera comique, Le Triomphe-du Temps (The Triumph of Time). It first premiered at Versailles on December 30, 1761.
In 1762, he composed the music for the opera comique Sancho Panca, Gouverneur dans l'Isle de Barataria. It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on July 8, 1762.
On October 29, 1762, Philidor's first son, Andre-Joseph-Helene Danican Philidor (1762-1845) was born in Paris (Saint-Eustache). He was known as "le beau Philidor." He was employed by the Royal Treasury, appointed councilor of prefecture in Chartres, became mayor of Montlandon, and became director of a spinning factory. He married his niece, Victorine Danican Philidor (1800-1875), daughter of his brother Frederick.
In 1763, he composed the music for the opera comique Le bûcheron, ou Les trois souhaits (The Lumberjack or The Three Wished). The text was written by M. Guichard. It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on February 28, 1763.
In 1763, he composed Ariette pour le Davin du Village.
In 1763, he composed the music for the opera comiqies La bagarre and Les fêtes de la paix (The Festival of Peace). Both premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on July 4, 1763.
In 1763, Philidor composed the music for the popular opera Le Sorcier (The Sorcerer). It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on January 2, 1764. Philidor was the first French composer to be applauded in person after the premier of Le Sorcier.
Philidor was later accused of plagiarism for the music on Le Sorcier, stealing note for note from Christoph Gluck's (1714-1787) Orfeo ed Euridice, written in 1762. Later on, it was Gluck that was accused of plagiarism as Philidor's opera was performed in public in Paris before Gluck's opera was performed in public in Vienna. Philidor sometimes wrote down music as his own that had actually been composed by others. One music critic wrote, "Our musical savants claim that Philidor has stolen from Italians. What does it matter, if he enriches our nation with the beautiful things of foreign lands which we whlud perhaps never have known without him?" (source: Heartz, Music in European Capitals, 2003, p. 752)
On October 11, 1764, Philidor's Te Deum (Requim pour Rameau) was sung at a memorial service for Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764).
In 1765 he composed the music for the comique opera Tom Jones for the theater loosely based on Henry Fielding's (1707-1754) novel, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling,published in 1749. The text was written by Antoine-Alexandre-Henri Poinsinet (1735-1769). Philidor introduced for the first time an unaccompanied quartet. It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on February 17, 1765. It was damned the first night. However, Philidor had the text revised by Michael-Jaen Sedaine, and this new version was performed almost a year later, on January 30, 1766, to great success. It proved to be one of the most popular operas comiques of the late 18th century.
In Tom Jones, Philidor showed that he was a pioneer in descriptive music. He introduced onomatropic sounds into his orchestra — the hunting horn, the bay of the hounds, the horses' hooves, and the crack of whips. (source: Schonberg, Grandmasters of Chess, 1973, P. 34)
In 1765, Philidor assisted in the composition of the music for the opera comique Le Tonnier (The Stalwart). It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on March 16, 1765.
In 1765, Philidor's second son, Louis Danican Philidor (1765-1802) was born. He worked in the Royal Treasury and had no descendants.
In 1765, he composed, Six ariettes composees pour le roman : Histoire amoureuse de Pierre Lelong et de sa très honoree dame Blanche Bazu.
In 1766, Philidor's third son, Frederic Danican Philidor (1766-1821) was born. He worked in a spinning factory in Bayeux.
In September 1766, for the anniversary of music composer Jean-Philippe Rameau's (1683-1764) death, Philidor composed a requiem which was performed at the Oratorio.
In 1766, he composed Douze ariettes periodiques.
In 1767, he composed the music to Ernelinde, princesse de Norvege (Ernelinde, Princess of Norway), a three-act operatic tragedie lyrique. The text written by Henri Poinsinet. It was Philidor's first tragic opera. It first appeared at the Academie Royale de Musique, Theatre des Tuileries on January 10, 1768. It later premiered in Brussels in 1772 and at Versailles in 1773. His opera was performed for 8 successive nights and 18 performances overall before it finally closed in January 24, 1768. King Louis XV privately rewarded Philidor with a 25 Louis d'or (gold coins).
On opening night of Ernelinde, the Duke of Chartres, who was present, bet a friend 100 Louis that the opera would not reach 20 presentations. He won his bet.
In 1767, Andre Gretry (1741-1813), a composer of opera comiques, moved to Paris and became friends with Philidor. Gretry and Philidor worked together and wrote the music for the opera comique Le Jardinier de Sidon (The Gardener of Sidon) in 1768. It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on July 18, 1768.
In 1768, Philidor played chess against Rousseau at the cafe Procope.
In 1768, he composed La Chasse.
On June 7, 1769, Henri Poinsinet, Philidor's friend and main text writer to Philidor's operas, died. Philidor then selected Michel-Jaen Sedaine as his main text writer to his operas.
In 1769, he composed the music to the opera comique L'amant degiuse, ou Le jardinier suppose (The disguised lover, or the supposed gardener). It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on September 2, 1769.
In 1769, he assisted in the composition of the music for the opera comique La Rosiere de Salency. It first premiered at Fontainebleau on October 25, 1769.
In 1769, Philidor's fourth son, Auguste Danican Philidor (1769-1802) was born. He was a soldier in the revolutionary army. He had no descendants.
In 1769-1770, he composed the music for the opera comique La nouvelles ecole des femmes (The New School of Women). It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on January 22, 1770.
In 1770, Philidor considered himself a marchand-mercier, a type of entrepreneur working outside the guild system of craftsmen. That's how he signed his occupation on the baptismal certificates of his children.
In 1771, Denis Diderot encouraged Philidor to go England to secure the publication of an expanded edition of his chess treatise.
In 1771 and 1773 he made brief trips to London to play at the Salopian coffee house, Charing Cross, and the St. James Chess Club. He returned for seasonal chess lectures in 1775 and 1792.
In 1772, a portrait was made of Philidor by Augustin de Saint-Aubin (1736-1807).
In 1772-73, he composed the music for the opera comique Le bon fils (The Good Son). It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on January 11, 1773.
In 1773, he composed Te Deum.
In 1773, Philidor was the chess teacher of the Bohemian composer and pianist Ludwig Wenzel Lachnith (1746-1820).
In 1773, he composed the music for the opera Zemire et Melide (Melide, ou Le navigateur). It first premiered at Fontainebleau before the Royal Court on October 30, 1773.
In November 1773, Philidor revised his Ernelinde Princesses de Norvege, and called his new revision Sandomir, Prince de Danemark (changing the heroine to the hero and changing to another Scandinavian country). Philidor's music was performed at the Theatre Gabriel at the Palace of Versailles in celebrating the wedding of Count d'Artois, age 16, brother of Louis XVI, and Maria Theresa of Savoy, age 14. The performance at Versailles was on December 11, 1773. (source: Alain White, "Philidor's Ernelinde," Our Folder, Oct 1922, p. 29)
In 1774, the Parsloe's Chess Club on St. James Street, was formed in London, with a distinguished membership limited to 100. A fund was raided to enable Philidor to spend from February to June at the club. Philidor visited the club as resident master for 20 years. He gave lessons for a crown (5 shillings or 60 cents) each. The club existed until 1825.
In May 1774, King XVI (1754-1793) of France came to power and continued the pension to Philidor.
In 1774-75, Philidor assisted in the composition for the music for the opera comique Berthe. It first premiered at Las Monnale in Brussels on January 18, 1775.
In 1775, he composed the music for the opera comique Les femmes vengees, ou Les feintes infidelites (The Avenged Women, or The Feints Infidelities). It first premiered at the Comedie-Italienne, Hotel de Bourgogne, in Paris, on March 20, 1775.
In 1775, Philidor spent his first chess season at the Parsloe's Chess Club teaching chess (and music), giving simultaneous and blindfold exhibitions, and playing chess with the regular members of the London chess clubs. He spent his morning hours at musical composition. Philidor sent every penny of his salary to his family back in Paris.
In 1775, Philidor published Analysis of the Game of Chess; a new edition, greatly enlarged. It was printed by Elmsley, in the Strand, in London.
In June 1775, Philidor returned to Paris.
In the late 1770s, he composed the music for the opera comique Protogene, but it was incomplete and never performed.
In 1776, he only daughter (another daughter died in infancy), Elyse Danican Philidor (1776-1819), was born. She later married Louis Barthelemy Pradher (1871-1843) a composer and pianist.
In 1777 he published a second edition of his book, Analyse Du Jeu Echecs; Nouvelle Edition, considerablement augment under the patronage of the London Chess Club at Parsloe's. He dedicated his book to the members of the (London) Chess Club. There were 283 subscribers, including Lord Sandwich. Philidor added 6 other games to the original 4 games that he analyzed. In this book he described the rule for castling as we know it now. However, there was a footnote: "The old way of castling in several countries, and which still subsists in some, was to leave to the player's disposal, all the interval the King and the Rook, inclusively, to place there these two pieces." So, as recently as 1777, you could put the King and Rook anywhere you wanted on the back rank. The 1777 edition included a portrait of Philidor by Bartolozzy. The price of his second edition in England was 2 shillings, 6 pence (about $20 in today's currency).
Late in 1778, Giuseppe (Joseph) Baretti (1719-1789), an Italian poet and scholar, decided set to music the Horace (65 BC — 8 BC) poem, Carmen Saeculare, (the original music was lost to antiquity). He persuaded Philidor, who was in London, to provide the score.
In February 1779, Philidor set to music to Carmen Saeculare while in London. The English text was written by Baretti and Samuel Johnson wrote the Latin and English epilogue. This was the most ambitious musical composition ever based on Horace's poetry. It was performed three nights (Feb 26, March 5, and March 12, 1779) with great success at Free-Mason's Hall in London. Later, in 1780, it was performed in Paris three times. It received high praise from music critics in both cities. Philidor received 450 British pounds for his work (over $70,000 in today's currency). (source: Ruxin, "Not in Fleeman," The Past as Present: Selected Thoughts & Essays, 2017. p. 186)
In 1779, a German edition of Philidor's second edition was published by Schak Hiarte Ewald: Praktische Anweisung zum Schachspiel von Andre Danican Philidor.Aus dem Franzosischen. It was reprinted in 1797, 1810, 1834, and 1840.
In 1780, Philidor was witness to the London riots that came when Lord George Gordan led a protest against the Papists Acts of 1778. The crowd of protesters fragmented and began looting nearby buildings; by the time the riots had finished a week later, 300 had died, and more property had been damaged than during the entire French Revolution.
In 1780, he composed the music for the tragedie lyrique Persee (Perseus). It was first premiered at the Academie Royale de Musique, Theatre de Palais-Royal in Paris on October 27, 1780. It was not very successful.
In 1780, Philidor maed the Paris premiere of Carmen into a society event. He secured a hall in the Tuileries Palace and chose a day when there were no classes at the University of Paris. He sold tickets to the event in advance and had a program printed up giving the text in both Latin and French.
In 1780, Philidor sent a copy of his musical work from Carmen Saeculare to Catherine the Great of Russia. She generously rewarded Philidor for his work.
In 1781, Benjamin Franklin visited the Cafe de la Regence for the express purpose of getting Philidor to autograph his chess book. After Franklin had left, the owner of the Cafe exclaimed, "Francois, you just autographed your book for the American Ambassador!" Philidor glanced up from the chess game he was playing and said, "That's funny, I never knew that he was a chess player."
On May 27, 1782, Philidor played 2 games blindfolded simultaneously at the Parsloe's, drawing one (to Count Hans Moritz von Bruehl) and losing one (to Dr. Thomas Bowdler). The price of tickets to his blindfold exhibition was 5 shillings. (source: Morning Post, May 28, 1782, and the periodical, The World, May 28, 1782)
After Philidor's blindfold exhibition, Diderot wrote a letter to Philidor, admonishing him for what he considered to be foolishness, especially when there was no financial reward.
In 1783, Richard Twiss (1747-1821), and English write known for his books on chess and travel, visited Philidor and his family in Paris.
In 1783 a new chess club was established in Paris under the patronage of Louis XVIII with Philidor invited to teach and play chess.
In 1783, Philidor played The Turk at the Cafe de la Regence.
In 1783, a bust of Philidor was made by Augustine Pajou (1730-1809), made of plater and glaze. Philidor commissioned several copies for his English friends. After his death, many more copies were made.
In 1783, he composed La Belle Enclave.
In 1783, Philidor urged his first son in the islands, but he preferred to stay in Paris.
On May 8, 1783 Philidor played 3 blindfold games simultaneously at Parsole's chess club on St. James Street, winning 2 and drawing one (defeating Count Bruehl, Frances Maseres (1731-1834) and drawing with Dr. Bowdler).
In another blindfold exhibition, he defeated Mr. Jennings, Mr. Erskine, and drew with Count Bruehl.
In 9 blindfold performances, Philidor won 10, drew 4, and lost 6. Some affidavits were signed, because those persons who were involved doubted that future generations would believe that such a blindfold feat was possible.
Bruel — Philidor (blindfold), London, May 26, 1783, 1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 c6 3.Qe2 d6 4.c3 f5 5.d3 Nf6 6.exf5 Bxf5 7.d4 e4 8.Bg5 d5 9.Bb3 Bd6 10.Nd2 Nbd7 11.h3 h6 12.Be3 Qe7 13.f4 h5 14.c4 a6 15.cxd5 cxd5 16.Qf2 O-O 17.Ne2 b5 18.O-O Nb6 19.Ng3 g6 20.Rac1 Nc4 21.Nxf5 gxf5 22.Qg3+ Qg7 23.Qxg7+ Kxg7 24.Bxc4 bxc4 25.g3 Rab8 26.b3 Ba3 27.Rc2 cxb3 28.axb3 Rfc8 29.Rxc8 Rxc8 30.Ra1 Bb4 31.Rxa6 Rc3 32.Kf2 Rd3 33.Ra2 Bxd2 34.Rxd2 Rxb3 35.Rc2 h4 36.Rc7+ Kg6 37.gxh4 Nh5 38.Rd7 Nxf4 39.Bxf4 Rf3+ 40.Kg2 Rxf4 41.Rxd5 Rf3 42.Rd8 Rd3 43.d5 f4 44.d6 Rd2+ 45.Kf1 Kf7 46.h5 e3 47.h6 f3 0-1
Bowdler — Philidor (blindfold), London, May 26, 1783, 1.e4 c5 2.Bc4 e6 3.Qe2 Nc6 4.c3 a6 5.a4 b6 6.f4 d6 7.Nf3 Nge7 8.Ba2 g6 9.d3 Bg7 10.Be3 d5 11.Nbd2 O-O 12.O-O f5 13.e5 h6 14.d4 c4 15.b4 b5 16.Bb1 Bd7 17.Bc2 Qc7 18.h3 Kh7 19.Kh2 Na7 20.g4 bxa4 21.Bxa4 Nb5 22.Bxb5 Bxb5 23.Rg1 Rg8 24.Rg3 a5 25.bxa5 Rxa5 26.Rgg1 Rga8 27.Rxa5 Qxa5 28.Rc1 Qa3 29.Nf1 Qb3 30.Qd1 Ra2+ 31.Bd2 Qxd1 32.Rxd1 Ba4 33.Rb1 Bb3 34.Kg3 Nc6 35.Ne3 Bf8 36.Bc1 Ba3 37.h4 Bxc1 38.Rxc1 Ne7 39.h5 Re2 40.Re1 Rxe1 41.Nxe1 fxg4 42.Kxg4 Nf5 43.Nxf5 gxf5+ 44.Kg3 Bd1 45.Nf3 Bxf3 46.Kxf3 Kg7 47.Ke3 Kf7 48.Kd2 Ke7 49.Kc2 Kd7 50.Kb2 Kc6 51.Ka3 Kb5 1/2-1/2
In 1784, Philidor composed the music to the opera comique Le Dormeur eveille (douteux).
In 1785 he composed the music for the tragedie lyrique Themistocle. It first premiered at Fontainebleau on October 13, 1785.
In 1785, he composed the music for the opera comique L'amitie au village (Friendship in the village). It first premiered at Fontainebleau on October 18, 1785.
In 1786, he composed Te Deum, motet a grand choeur.
In 1787, Jacques Francois Mouret (1787-1837) was born. He was a great-nephew of Philidor. He became a Franch chess master, tutor to Louis Philippe I, and was an operator of The Turk, the chess-playing automaton.
In 1787, he composed the music for the opera comique La belle Esclave (The good slave). It first premiered at the Theatre de Comte de Beaujolais on September 18, 1787.
In 1787, 33 people came to one of Philidor's blindfold exhibition, not counting chess club members.
Bruehl — Philidor, London, 1787, 1. e4 e5 2. Bc4 c6 3. Qe2 Nf6 4. d3 Bc5 5. Be3 Bxe3 6. fxe3 d6 7. c3 Be6 8. Bxe6 fxe6 9. Nh3 Nbd7 10. O-O Qe7 11. Nd2 O-O 12. Kh1 d5 13. exd5 exd5 14. e4 dxe4 15. Nxe4 Nxe4 16. Qxe4 Rxf1+ 17. Rxf1 Nf6 18. Qc4+ Kh8 19. Qh4 h6 20. d4 exd4 21. Re1 Qf7 22. cxd4 Qh5 23. Qxh5 Nxh5 24. Re5 g5 25. Re6 Kg7 26. Re7+ Kg6 27. Rxb7 g4 28. Ng1 Rd8 29. Rxa7 Rxd4 30. Rc7 Rb4 31. a4 Rxa4 32. Rxc6+ Kg5 33. Rc5+ Kg6 34. Rb5 Ra1 35. g3 Rd1 36. b4 Rd2 37. Rb6+ Nf6 38. b5 Rb2 39. Rb8 Ne4 40. b6 Ng5 41. b7 Kh5 42. Rf8 Rxb7 43. Rf2 Rb1 44. Kg2 1/2-1/2
Bruehl — Philidor, London 1788, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. Bc4 Bg7 5. h4 h6 6. hxg5 hxg5 7. Rxh8 Bxh8 8. d4 g4 9. Bxf4 gxf3 10. Qxf3 Qe7 11. c3 Nf6 12. Nd2 d5 13. Bd3 dxe4 14. Nxe4 Nxe4 15. Qxe4 Qxe4+ 16. Bxe4 c6 17. Kd2 Be6 18. b3 Nd7 19. Rh1 Bf6 20. Kc2 O-O-O 21. Bd6 Nb6 22. Bc5 Kc7 23. Rh7 Rh8 24. c4 Rxh7 25. Bxh7 Nd7 26. Kd3 Nxc5+ 27. dxc5 Be7 28. b4 a6 29. a3 f5 30. Bg6 Kd7 31. Bh5 Bg5 32. Bd1 Bc1 33. Ba4 Bxa3 34. Kc3 Bc1 35. Bd1 Bf4 36. Kd4 Ke7 37. b5 Kf6 38. Bf3 Bd7 39. b6 Bg3 40. Bd1 Bh4 41. Ke3 Ke5 42. Bf3 Bf2+ 43. Kd3 Bxc5 44. Kc3 Bxb6 0-1
In 1788, after a blindfold exhibition, he wrote to his wife: "There are astonish panegyrics in all the newspapers, on the subject of the three blindfold games I played Saturday; they say that I have had such a clear head."
In 1788, he composed the music for the opera comique Le mari comme il les faudrait tous, ou La nouvelle ecole des maris (The Mari as it should all, or The new school of husband). It first premiered at the Theatre de Comte de Beaujolais on November 12, 1788.
In June 1789, Philidor composed An Ode on His Majesty's Recovery for some celebration of the recovery of King George III. Twiss wrote that Philidor ran away the day after the performance of his musical composition at Restoration Concert at Hanover Square in London, without paying the musicians.
In 1789, he composed the motet, Te Deum et Domine salvum fac regem.
In 1789, he composed Canon scientifique.
On February 23, 1790, Philidor wrote to his wife in Paris that the blindfold chess games did not tire him very much, and that she should therefore not be worried about his health.
In 1790, Philidor published an original third edition of his book, ANALYSIS OF THE GAME OF CHESS. By Mr. PHILIDOR. A new edition, improved and greatly enlarged. To which is added, several parties, played by the Author blindfold, against three adversaries. It was dedicated to his friend and patron, Count Bruehl (1736-1809). It was printed by Peter Elmsly, bookseller in the Strand in London. Following the preface, there was a list of only 56 subscribers.
Over the years, the subscribers and purchasers of his books included Bruehl, Burgoyne, Conway, Diderort, Duke of Cumberland, Gibbon, Howe, Jefferson, Franklin, Louis XVIII, Marmontel, Rousseau, Lord Sandwich, Tallyrand, Twiss, and Voltaire.
In 1790, 43 people came to one of Philidor's blindfold exhibitions, not counting chess club members. In his exhibitions, Philidor played at the same time of day and took care to eat only lightly before the exhibition. He did not eat dinner until the exhibition was over. He tried to regulate his diet for several days previously. Ne refused to play any simultaneous or blindfold chess on short notice.
Philidor — NN, London 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 d6 3. Nf3 Bg4 4. Bc4 Nc6 5. c3 Bxf3 6. Qxf3 Nf6 7. d3 Na5 8. Bb5+ c6 9. Ba4 b5 10. Bc2 Be7 11. d4 exd4 12. cxd4 O-O 13. Be3 Nc4 14. Nd2 Nxb2 15. g4 Nc4 16. Nxc4 bxc4 17. g5 Nd7 18. h4 Qa5+ 19. Kd1 Qa3 20. Rb1 Qxa2 21. Qh5 Rab8 22. e5 g6 23. Qe2 Rb2 24. h5 c5 25. hxg6 fxg6 26. Rxh7 Kxh7 27. Qh5+ Kg8 28. Qxg6+ Kh8 29. Qh7# 1-0
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 d5 3. exd5 Qxd5 4. fxe5 Qxe5+ 5. Be2 Bd6 6. Nf3 Qe7 7. d4 Be6 8. O-O Nd7 9. c4 c6 10. Nc3 Ngf6 11. Bd3 O-O 12. Bg5 h6 13. Bh4 Qd8 14. Ne4 Be7 15. Qe2 Qc7 16. Nxf6+ Nxf6 17. Bxf6 Bxf6 18. Qe4 g6 19. Ne5 Bxe5 20. dxe5 Rad8 21. Rf6 Qd7 22. Rxg6+ fxg6 23. Qxg6+ Kh8 24. Qxh6+ 1/2-1/2
Sheldon - Philidor, London 1790 1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 c6 3.Nf3 d5 4.exd5 cxd5 5.Bb3 Nc6 6.d4 e4 7.Ne5 Be6 8.O-O f6 9.Nxc6 bxc6 10.f3 f5 11.Be3 Nf6 12.Nd2 Bd6 13.c4 O-O 14.Ba4 Qc7 15.f4 Ng4 16.Qe2 Nxe3 17.Qxe3 c5 18.Nb3 dxc4 19.Nxc5 Bxc5 20.dxc5 Rac8 21.c6 Rfd8 22.Rfd1 Rd3 23.Rxd3 cxd3 24.Bb3 Bxb3 25.axb3 Qb6 26.Kf2 Qxe3+ 27.Kxe3 Rxc6 28.Rxa7 Rd6 29.Kd2 e3+ 30.Kxe3 d2 31.Ra1 d1=Q 0-1
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Bc4 Qh4+ 4. Kf1 d6 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. d4 g5 7. Nc3 Qh5 8. h4 h6 9. Kf2 Bxf3 10. gxf3 Qg6 11. hxg5 Qxg5 12. Ne2 Nd7 13. Nxf4 Qd8 14. c3 Nb6 15. Bd3 Qd7 16. Be3 O-O-O 17. a4 Kb8 18. a5 Nc8 19. b4 c6 20. b5 cxb5 21. a6 b6 22. Qb3 Nf6 23. Bxb5 Qc7 24. d5 Bg7 25. Bc6 Nd7 26. Nd3 Ne5 27. Nxe5 Bxe5 28. f4 Bg7 29. Bd4 Bxd4+ 30. cxd4 Qe7 31. Kf3 Rdg8 32. Rac1 Rg6 33. Bb7 Rhg8 34. Rxc8+ Rxc8 35. Bxc8 Kxc8 36. Rc1+ Kb8 37. Qc4 Qd7 38. f5 Rg8 39. Qc6 Qxc6 40. dxc6 Kc7 41. d5 h5 42. Rh1 Rh8 43. Rg1 Rh7 44. Rg8 b5 45. Ra8 Kb6 46. Rb8+ Kc7 47. Rb7+ Kd8 48. e5 dxe5 49. d6 Kc8 50. d7+ Kd8 51. Rb8+ Kc7 52. d8=Q+ 1-0
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Bc4 Qh4+ 4. Kf1 d6 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. d4 g5 7. c3 Qh5 8. Kf2 Nf6 9. Qe2 Bxf3 10. Qxf3 Qxf3+ 11. gxf3 Bg7 12. h4 h6 13. Rg1 Nh7 14. Bxf4 Bxd4+ 15. cxd4 gxf4 16. Rg7 Nc6 17. Nc3 Nxd4 18. Bxf7+ Kf8 19. Rag1 Nc6 20. Bb3 Rd8 21. Rf7+ Ke8 22. Rgg7 Nf8 23. Nd5 1-0
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 Be7 4. Bc4 Bh4+ 5. g3 fxg3 6. O-O gxh2+ 7. Kh1 Be7 8. Bxf7+ Kf8 9. Ne5 Nf6 10. Bb3 Qe8 11. Nf7 Rg8 12. e5 d5 13. exf6 gxf6 14. Bxd5 Bg4 15. Qe1 Bh5 16. d4 Bxf7 17. Bh6+ Rg7 18. Nc3 Bxd5+ 19. Nxd5 Qf7 20. Nxe7 Qxe7 21. Qxe7+ Kxe7 22. Bxg7 1-0
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 Be7 4. Bc4 Bh4+ 5. g3 fxg3 6. O-O gxh2+ 7. Kh1 Bf6 8. e5 d5 9. exf6 Nxf6 10. Bb3 Be6 11. d3 h6 12. Bf4 c5 13. Bxh2 Nc6 14. Nbd2 Ng4 15. Qe2 Nxh2 16. Qxh2 Qb8 17. Qxb8+ Rxb8 18. Rae1 Kd7 19. Ne5+ Nxe5 20. Rxe5 Kd6 21. Rfe1 b5 22. c3 Rbe8 23. a4 a6 24. Nf3 g5 25. Kg2 f6 26. R5e2 h5 27. axb5 axb5 28. Ra1 Ra8 29. Rae1 Bd7 30. d4 c4 31. Bc2 h4 32. Rh1 Rh5 33. b3 Rah8 34. b4 g4 35. Nd2 Rg5 36. Rf1 g3 37. Rxf6+ Kc7 38. Rg6 h3+ 39. Kg1 g2 40. Rxg5 h2+ 41. Kxg2 h1=Q+ 42. Kf2 Rf8+ 43. Ke3 Qh3+ 44. Nf3 Qxf3+ 0-1
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 Be7 4. Bc4 Bh4+ 5. g3 fxg3 6. O-O gxh2+ 7. Kh1 Bf6 8. e5 d5 9. exf6 Nxf6 10. Bb3 Be6 11. d4 Ne4 12. Bf4 f5 13. Nbd2 Qe7 14. c4 c6 15. cxd5 cxd5 16. Rc1 Nc6 17. Nxe4 fxe4 18. Nxh2 O-O 19. Qd2 h6 20. Rc5 Rad8 21. Ba4 g5 22. Be3 Rxf1+ 23. Nxf1 Qd6 24. Qh2 Kg7 25. Qxd6 Rxd6 26. a3 Kg6 27. b4 h5 28. b5 Ne7 29. Rc7 Rd7 30. Rxd7 Bxd7 31. Kg2 h4 32. Bf2 Kh5 33. Bd1+ Bg4 34. Bxg4+ Kxg4 35. Ne3+ Kf4 36. Kh3 Kf3 37. Ng4 Nf5 38. Bg1 e3 39. a4 e2 40. Bf2 Nxd4 0-1
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 d5 3. exd5 exf4 4. Nf3 Qxd5 5. d4 Qe4+ 6. Kf2 Be7 7. Bd3 Qc6 8. Bxf4 Be6 9. Qe2 Qd7 10. c4 c6 11. Nc3 Nf6 12. h3 O-O 13. g4 Bd6 14. Ne5 Bxe5 15. dxe5 Ne8 16. Rad1 Qe7 17. g5 Nd7 18. Qh5 g6 19. Qh6 Qc5+ 20. Kg3 Nxe5 21. Ne4 Qd4 22. Nf6+ Nxf6 23. gxf6 1-0
Philidor — NN, London 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. Bc4 Bg7 5. h4 h6 6. d4 d6 7. c3 c6 8. Qe2 Bg4 9. g3 fxg3 10. hxg5 hxg5 11. Rxh8 Bxh8 12. Bxg5 Bf6 13. Bxf6 Qxf6 14. Nbd2 Nd7 15. O-O-O O-O-O 16. Rg1 Qf4 17. Qg2 f5 18. Qxg3 Qxg3 19. Rxg3 fxe4 20. Bxg8 Bxf3 21. Nxf3 exf3 22. Bf7 Rf8 23. Rxf3 Kc7 24. Kd2 c5 25. Bh5 Rxf3 26. Bxf3 1/2-1/2
Philidor — NN, London 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. Bc4 Bg7 5. h4 h6 6. d4 d6 7. c3 c6 8. Qb3 Qe7 9. O-O Nd7 10. hxg5 hxg5 11. Nxg5 Qxg5 12. Bxf7+ Kf8 13. Bxf4 Qh4 14. Bxd6+ Ne7 15. Bg6+ Bf6 16. Qf7# 1-0
Philidor — NN, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. Bc4 Bg7 5. h4 h6 6. d4 d6 7. c3 c6 8. Qe2 Be6 9. Bxe6 fxe6 10. e5 dxe5 11. dxe5 Nd7 12. g3 g4 13. gxf4 gxf3 14. Qxf3 Qe7 15. Nd2 O-O-O 16. b4 h5 17. Ne4 Nb6 18. Be3 Nh6 19. Bc5 Qc7 20. a4 Bf8 21. a5 Bxc5 22. bxc5 Nd7 23. Nd6+ Kb8 24. Rb1 Nxc5 25. Nxb7 Nxb7 26. a6 Ka8 27. Rxb7 Qc8 28. Rh2 Rd7 29. Rhb2 Rhh7 30. Qxc6 1-0
John Smith — Philidor, London (Chess Club simul), March 13, 1790, 1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.d3 c6 4.Bg5 h6 5.Bxf6 Qxf6 6.Nc3 b5 7.Bb3 a5 8.a3 Bc5 9.Nf3 d6 10.Qd2 Be6 11.Bxe6 fxe6 12.O-O g5 13.h3 Nd7 14.Nh2 h5 15.g3 Ke7 16.Kg2 d5 17.f3 Nf8 18.Ne2 Ng6 19.c3 Rag8 20.d4 Bb6 21.dxe5 Qxe5 22.Nd4 Kd7 23.Rae1 h4 24.Qf2 Bc7 25.Ne2 hxg3 26.Qxg3 Qxg3+ 27.Nxg3 Nf4+ 28.Kh1 Rxh3 29.Rg1 Rxh2+ 30.Kxh2 Rh8+ 31.Nh5 Rxh5+ 32.Kg3 Nh3+ 33.Kg4 Rh4# 0-1
Henry Conway — Philidor, London, 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. Bc4 c6 3. Nc3 Bd6 4. d3 Bc7 5. Qf3 Qe7 6. Bg5 Nf6 7. Nge2 d6 8. h3 Be6 9. Bb3 b5 10. O-O-O h6 11. Bxf6 Qxf6 12. Qxf6 gxf6 13. d4 a5 14. f4 exd4 15. Rxd4 a4 16. Bxe6 fxe6 17. Rhd1 Ke7 18. Ng1 Nd7 19. Nf3 h5 20. e5 fxe5 21. Nxe5 Nxe5 22. fxe5 d5 23. Re1 Raf8 24. Rd3 Rf5 25. b3 axb3 26. axb3 Rxe5 27. Rf1 Rg5 28. g3 Rhg8 29. Ne2 e5 30. Rdf3 R8g7 31. Rf6 Bd6 32. Rh6 R7g6 33. Rxg6 Rxg6 34. Rf5 e4 35. Rxh5 Bxg3 36. Nxg3 Rxg3 37. Kd2 Kd6 38. Rh8 Kc5 39. c3 b4 40. cxb4+ Kd4 41. Rh6 Rg2+ 42. Kc1 e3 43. Rxc6 Rg1+ 44. Kb2 e2 45. Re6 e1=Q 46. Rxe1 Rxe1 0-1
Philidor — NN, London 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 Nd7 4. Bc4 c6 5. Ng5 Nh6 6. a4 Be7 7. Bxf7+ Nxf7 8. Ne6 Qa5+ 9. Bd2 Qb6 10. a5 Qxb2 11. Bc3 1-0
NN — Philidor, London 1790, 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 f5 4. dxe5 fxe4 5. Ng5 d5 6. f4 Bc5 7. c4 c6 8. Nc3 Ne7 9. h4 h6 10. Nh3 O-O 11. Na4 Bb4+ 12. Bd2 Bxd2+ 13. Qxd2 d4 14. c5 b5 15. cxb6 axb6 16. b3 Be6 17. Be2 Nf5 18. Ng1 Ng3 19. Rh2 e3 20. Qb2 d3 21. Bf3 Rxf4 22. O-O-O Rfxa4 23. bxa4 Rxa4 24. a3 Rc4+ 25. Kb1 Rc2 26. Qb4 Na6 27. Qf4 Nc5 28. Qxg3 Ba2+ 0-1
In the 1790s, Philidor's sons joined the French National Guard.
On May 4, 1791, Philidor wrote a letter to Thomas Jefferson discussing the manufacture of arms.
Dieter Sodermanns — Philidor, 1792, 1. e4 c5 2. Bc4 e6 3. Nf3 d5 4. exd5 exd5 5. Bb5+ Bd7 6. Bxd7+ Nxd7 7. Nc3 Ngf6 8. d4 Be7 9. dxc5 Nxc5 10. Be3 O-O 11. Bxc5 Bxc5 12. O-O Re8 13. a3 Qd7 14. b4 Bb6 15. a4 Rac8 16. a5 Bxf2+ 17. Rxf2 Rxc3 18. Qd4 Rc4 19. Qxa7 Rxb4 20. a6 bxa6 21. Qxd7 Nxd7 22. Rxa6 Nc5 23. Ra5 Ne4 24. Re2 Rb1+ 25. Re1 Rxe1+ 26. Nxe1 h6 27. Rxd5 Nc3 28. Rc5 Rxe1+ 29. Kf2 Re2+ 30. Kf3 Rxc2 31. Rc8+ Kh7 32. Kg4 Rxg2+ 33. Kh3 Rc2 34. Kg4 g6 35. h4 f5+ 36. Kf4 Ne2+ 0-1
In 1792, Philidor obtained a passport from the ruling authority of the time.
In December 1792, at age 65, he left France for England, never to return again. His music was banned from France after the French Revolution (1789-1799) for political reasons (a pensioner of two kings). Philidor's name was on the Revolutionary banishment list, established by the Convention nationale, due to his family's attachment to the royal family. He had to leave his wife and children behind. Philidor wanted to return to France, but he was considered an emigre and would have been arrested or executed.
By 1793, Philidor was suffering from gout.
In February 1793, the revolutionary government of France declared war on England, stranding Philidor.
On April 13, 1793, the Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont (1728-1810), a French diplomat, spy, Freemason, transvestite, and soldier, played Philidor in a simultaneous exhibition.
In 1794, Philidor's name was added on a list of proscribed emigres. These were people who had fled the country during the Revolution and were considered traitors by the revolutionaries.
In 1794, Philidor gave another blindfold exhibition in the presence of the Turkish Ambassador.
In 1794, an etching was made of Philidor surrounded by his friends, which included George Atwood, Bruehl, Frances Maseres, Thomas Bowdler, and Joseph Wilson.
Atwood — Philidor, London, 1794, 1. e4 c5 2. f4 e6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. c3 d5 5. e5 f5 6. d4 Nh6 7. a3 Nf7 8. Be3 Qb6 9. Qd2 Bd7 10. Qf2 c4 11. Bxc4 dxc4 12. d5 Qc7 13. dxc6 Bxc6 14. Bxa7 Bxf3 15. gxf3 g5 16. Be3 gxf4 17. Bxf4 Nxe5 18. Bxe5 Qxe5+ 19. Qe2 Qxe2+ 20. Kxe2 h5 21.Nd2 Rc8 22. Rhg1 Kf7 23. Rg2 Be7 24. Rag1 Bf6 25. Nf1 e5 26. Ne3 Ke6 27. Rd1 Rhg8 28. Rxg8 Rxg8 29. Nxc4 Rg2+ 30. Kd3 Rxh2 31. Rd2 Rh3 32. Ke2 b5 33. Ne3 Rh2+ 34. Ke1 Rxd2 35. Kxd2 Bg5 36. Ke2 Bxe3 37. Kxe3 h4 38. Kf2 e4 39. Kg2 e3 40. Kh3 e2 0-1
Atwood — Philidor, London, 1794, 1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. e3 e5 4. d5 c6 5. Bxc4 b5 6. Bb3 c5 7. a4 c4 8. Bc2 Bb7 9. e4 a6 10. Bd2 Bc5 11. Qe2 Ne7 12. Nf3 f6 13. axb5 axb5 14. Rxa8 Bxa8 15. O-O Qb6 16. Nc3 Bb4 17. b3 cxb3 18. Bxb3 O-O 19. d6+ Kh8 20. dxe7 Bxe7 21. Rb1 b4 22. Nd5 Bxd5 23. Bxd5 f5 24. Ne1 fxe4 25. Bxe4 Na6 26. Nd3 b3 27. Bd5 b2 28.Rxb2 Qd4 29. Bb7 Nc5 30. Be3 Qxd3 31. Bxc5 Qxe2 32. Rxe2 Bxc5 33. Rc2 Bd4 34.Kf1 g6 35. Rc8 Rxc8 36. Bxc8 Kg7 37. h4 h5 38. Ke2 Kf6 39. Kf3 Kg7 40. Ke4 1/2-1/2
Atwood — Philidor, London, 1794, 1. e4 c5 2. f4 Nc6 3. Nf3 e6 4. c3 d5 5. e5 f5 6. d4 Nh6 7. h3 Qb6 8. b3 Bd7 9. Be3 Nf7 10. Qd2 O-O-O 11. Qf2 cxd4 12. Nxd4 Nxd4 13. Bxd4 Qc6 14. Nd2 b6 15. a4 Bc5 16. Bb5 Bxd4 17. Qxd4 Qc5 18. Nf3 Bxb5 19. Qxc5+ bxc5 20. axb5 Kb7 21. Ke2 Ra8 22. Ra6 Rhe8 23. Rd1 Nd8 24. Ne1 c4 25. bxc4 dxc4 26. Rd7+ Kc8 27. Rxg7 Rb8 28. Raxa7 Rxb5 29. Rac7+ Kb8 30. Rxc4 Rb7 31. Rb4 Rxb4 32. cxb4 Nc6 33. Nd3 Re7 34. Rxe7 Nxe7 35. Nc5 Ng6 36. Nxe6 Kc8 37. Ke3 Kd7 38. Nd4 Ne7 39. g4 Ke8 40. g5 1-0
Atwood — Philidor, London, Feb 9, 1795, 1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. Bc4 g4 5. d4 gxf3 6. Qxf3 Nc6 7. c3 Qf6 8. e5 Qxe5+ 9. Kd1 Qf6 10. Re1+ Be7 11. Bxf4 d6 12. Qe3 0-1
In 1795, he started writing the music for Belisaire, but did not finish it before he died. It was finished by Auguste-Louis Bertin and premiered on October 3, 1796 at the Opera Comique, Salled Favart in Paris.
In 1795, Philidor composed Protegene, but did not finish it before he died.
Philidor's last blindfold performance was on Saturday, June 20, 1795 at the Parsloe's Club. He played 2 games blindfolded and a third game with sight of the board. One of his opponents was George Atwood (1746-1807), the mathematician and churchman. Atwood recorded and preserved these last games. (source: Bird, Chess History and Reminiscences, 1882)
On June 29, 1795, Philidor played two games with Atwood at the odds of a pawn and two moves. Philidor won one and lost one. This was Phiidor's last visit to the London chess club.
In July 1795, Philidor's passport had be refused by France and he was on the list of "suspected characters" or "persons who had been denounced by a Committee of French Informers."
On Monday, August 31, 1795, at age 68 (7 days from his 69th birthday), he died at 10 Little Ryder Street in the parish of St. James in London. A newspaper obituary read, "On Monday last, Mr. Philidor, the celebrated chess player, made his last move, into the other world."
Philidor's death certificate spelled his name "Phillidor." The burial register had him as Francois Andre Danican Philidor.
Philidor's funeral was held at St James Church in Piccadilly, London. Sir Christopher Wren was the church's architect in the 1680s. The church was badly damaged by air raids in October 1940. Philidor had been a member of the St James Church since 1775, but he was Catholic.
On Tuesday, September 1, 1795, the Morning Post was the first newspaper to record Philidor's death. It described Philidor as nearly 80 years old and a poor old man.
Philidor was buried on September 3, 1795, not at St James Church in Piccadilly, London. The St James Church graveyard was already full. Philidor was buried in a graveyard at what is today St. James' Gardens, Camden (Hampstead,near Euston Station). He was buried in burial plot g18, Ground 3. The St. James chapel by this graveyard was demolished in the 1870s.
Today there is a dilapidated memorial of Philidor in St James Garden. The writing has eroded away, but it does show the Philidor coat of arms on top of the memorial.
After his death, Philidor's oldest son started to write Philidor's biography, but did not get very far.
Only 68 games from his last years have been recorded, either played blindfolded or at odds. Philidor was in his 60s when the games were recorded.
Out of 9 blindfold displays for which the results were published, Philidor won 10, lost 6 and drew 4.
Philidor wrote 30 operas during his musical career. He was a singer and did not play any musical instruments.
Philidor's book was published in French in 1749, 1754, 1777, and 1845. It was published in English in 1750, 1762, 1777, 1790, and 1791. It was published in German in 1764, 1771, 1797, and 1840. It was published in Dutch in 1819.
Thomas Jefferson's (1743-1826) favorite chess book was Philidor's treatise on chess. He owned several copies of Philidor's book.
For many years, composition classes at the Conservatoire de Musique in Paris used Philidor's works as models.
In 1803, a new edition of Philidor's book was published by Montigny, called Analyse du Jeu des Echecs par A.D. Philidor. Avec une nouvelle Notation abregee et des Planches ou se trouve figure la situation du jeu pour les Renvois et les Fins de Parties. Par l'auteur des Stratagemes des Echecs. Nouvelle edition ornee du Portrait de l'Auteur. It was the earliest edition to adopt the algebraic notation. It was reprinted in 1820, 1830, and 1835.
In 1804, Peter Pratt printed an edition of Philidor's book. It contained 29 games, 50 Back Games (variations) and 15 others.
In 1819, a Dutch translation of Philidor's book was published in Amsterdam, called De Kunst van Schaakspelspeelen, in doelmaatige onderrichtingen, anngeweezen, ten nutte van elk, dien het to doen is, om het Schaakbord zoodanig te kennen, als, buiten dit onderwijs, anderezins veele jaaren tijds en eene gestadige oefening vereischt, door PHILIDOR.
In 1819, W. S. Kenny published a new edition of Philidor's book in London, called Analysis of the Game of Chess, by A.D. Philidor, illustrated by diagrams, on which are marked the situation of the party for the backgames and ends of parties: with Critical Remarks and Notes by the Author of the Stratagems of Chess. The printer was T. and J. Allman, Prince's Street, Haover-Square, London.
In 1821, a new edition of Philidor's book was published in French, supposedly in Philadelphia. It was probably pirated and printed in Belgium.
In 1824, W. S. Kenny translated Philodor's book into English.
In1832, George Walker published The celebrated Analysis of the Game of Chess, translated from the French of A.D.Philidor; with Notes and considerable additions, including fifty-six new Chess-Problems, hitherto unpublished in this country.
In 1835 George Walker published A Selection of Games at Chess: Actually Played by Philidor and his Contemporaries. The book was published in London. It contains 47 of Philidor's games. It is based on the note-taking of George Atwood.
In 1840, the city of Paris got rid of the original bust of Philidor that had been in front of one of the opera theatres since 1783.
In 1844, Walker's book on Philidor contained 62 games played by Philidor.
On June 6, 1845, Philidor's oldest son, Andre Joseph Helene Danican Philidor, died at the age of 83.
In 1858, George Allen (1808-1876) wrote The Life of Philidor, Musician and Chess-Player, and had it in Philadelphia in 1863.
In 1863, von der Lasa wrote that the games that appeared in Philidor's book were composed games, and not actually played.
By 1871, Philidor's chess book had gone through 70 editions and translated into English, German, Russian, and Italian.
His bust is carved into the Opera House in Paris, where it can still be seen along with his family coat of arms, which has a chessboard in it.
Jean-Jaques Rousseau's Confessions mentions Philidor with reference to music and chess.
A portrait of Philidor hung on the walls of the Cafe de Regence until 1855, when the Cafe was demolished and relocated on Rue St. Honore.
There have been over 100 editions of Philidor's book since 1749.
In the 1920s, John Keeble (1855-1939) of Norwich was the first to discover the burial record of Philidor.
In 1926, Philidor's opera, Le Marechal-ferrent, was performed in Dreux to celebrate the composer's bicentenary.
In 1976, Philidor's opera, Blaise le Savetier, was revived in London in celebration of Philidor's 250th anniversary.
In 1981, The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Chess Games was published with 78 of Philidor's games.
In 2015, Philidor's grave was found by Gordon Cadden of the Newport Chess Club in England.
Allen, The Life of Philidor, Musician and Chess-player, 1858, 1863, 1865
"Anecdotes of Mr. Philidor," The Edinburgh Magazine, 1794. Pp. 352-355
BBC, "Philidor's Music" - https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/artists/7aea4e09-c5bc-486f-98b6-7c84004c8fff
Benoit, Philidor, Musician and Chess Player, 1995
"Biographical Sketch of Philidor," The Saturday Magazine, June 19, 1841, pp. 237-239
Cadden, Gordon, "Sleuthing for Philidor's Grave," Newport Chess Club, Jan 1, 2015 - http://www.newportchessclub.org.uk/2015/01/sleuthing-for-philidors-grave.html
Carroll, Charles (1821-2014), Francois-Andre Danican Philidor, His Life and Dramatic Art, PhD Dissertation, 1960
Carroll, "Philidor in London," British Chess Magazine, 1961
Carroll, "The Toulouse-Philidor Collection," College Music Symposium, Spring, 1979, pp. 60-66
Cohen, Sarah (batgirl) - François-Andre Danican Philidor, 2007 - http://www.edochess.ca/batgirl/Danican_GW.html
Cohen, Sarah (batgirl) - François-Andre Danican Philidor — a complete listing of his music, 2007 - http://www.edochess.ca/batgirl/Philidor_music.html
Find a Grave — Philidor: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/113091345/fran%C3%A7ois-andr%C3%A9-danican-philidor
Fiske, "Philidor," The American Chess Monthly, August 1857, p. 252
Francois-Andre Danican Philidor, Italian Opera - http://www.italianopera.org/compositori/P/c219994F.htm>
"Francois-Andre Philidor," World Champions — reclaiming a lost century, ChessBase, Apr 6, 2014 - https://en.chessbase.com/post/world-champions-reclaiming-a-lost-century
Harding, British Chess Literature to 1914, 2018
Hooper & Whyld, "Philidor," The Oxford Companion to Chess, 2nd edition, 1992
Leger, La descendance percheronne de Francois-Andre Danican Philidor
Hearst & Knott, "Francois-Andre Philidor," Blindfold Chess, 2008
Heartz, Music in European Capitals, 2003
Keeble, "Philidor," British Chess Magazine, Oct 1926, pp 434-436
La Borde, Essai sur la Musique, 1760
Lasa, "Philidor as a Chess Author and Chess-Player," The Chess World, 1868
Leon, "Philidor and Stamma," British Chess Magazine, 1895
Levy and O'Connell, The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Chess Games, 1981
List of operas by Philidor - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_operas_by_Philidor
Metzner, "Philidor and the Chess Masters," Crescendo of the Virtuoso, 1998
Murray, A History of Chess, 1913
"Philidor," Le Palamede, January 1847
Philidor, L'Analyze Des Echecs, 1749 (first print)
Philidor, L'Analyze Des Echecs, 1749 (first reprint)
Philidor, L'Analyze Des Echecs, 1749 (second reprint)
Philidor, Chess Analyzed, 1750
Philidor, L'Analyse de jeu des echecs, 1777
Philidor, Analysis of the Game of Chess, A New Edition, Greatly Enlarged,1777
Philidor, ANALYSIS OF THE GAME OF CHESS. By Mr. PHILIDOR. A new edition, improved and greatly enlarged, To which is added, several parties, played by the Author blindfold, against three adversaries, 1790
Philidor, Analysis of the Game of Chess, 1819 (translated by Kenny) >br> Philidor, Analisis Del Juego De Ajedrez, 1846 (translated by de Algarra)
Philidor, Analyse du Jeu Des Echecs, Nouvelle Edition, (by Sanson) 1868
Philidor Genealogy - https://gw.geneanet.org/paube?lang=en&p=francois+andre&n=danican+philidor
Philidorian Society - http://www.mjae.com/philidor.html
Philidor's "L'Analyze des Echecs," ChessBase, June 6, 2016
Rushton, "Philidor and the Tragedie Lyrique," Musical Times, Sep 1976, pp. 734-737
Schonberg, "The Musican-Chess Player," Grandmasters of Chess, 1973
Senechaud, "Francois-Andre Danican Philidor," ResMusica, 2006 - http://www.resmusica.com/2006/11/18/francois-andre-danican-philidor/
Tomlinson, Amusements in Chess, 1845
Twiss, "Anecdotes of Mr. Philidor," Chess, 1787, vol 1
Walker, The Celebrated Analysis of A D Philidor, 1832
Walker, A Selection of Games at Chess played by Philidor, 1835
White, "Philidor's Ernelinde," Our Folder, Oct 1922
Williams, "Philidor Bi-Centenary," CHESS, Sep 1995, pp. 21-24
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