Chess in 1843
by Bill Wall
In 1843, one of the first known photograph of chessplayers was taken.
In 1843, the first edition of Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess) was published by Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa.† It was one of the most important opening references for many decades.
In 1843, Thomas Bright Wilson was born.† He invented the first chess clock.
In 1843, Charles Stanley immigrated to New York.
In 1843, William Sonneborn was born.† A tie-breaking method in Swiss-system tournaments is named after him and Johann Berger.
In 1843, Staunton played 1 c4, and it became known as English opening.
In 1843, the Staunton Gambit was actually played by St Amant against Staunton.
In 1843, George Walker founded the St George's Chess Club at Hanover Square.
In 1843, Jaenisch published Analyse nouvelle des ouvertures du jeu des echecs (new analysis of the openings in chess).
In 1843, the Benoni defense was first played by St Amant against Staunton.† It was called the Staunton defense.
In 1843, the Chess Playerís Chronicle became a shilling monthly magazine.†††††
In 1843, the first documented American chess tournament was held, a local event in New York.
On April 11, 1843, Johannes von Minckwitz was born.† He edited Deutsche Schachzeitung and wrote 2 chess books.
On April 28, 1843, the first match between Saint Amant and Staunton began in London.
On May 7, 1843, Saint Amant defeated Howard Staunton with 3 wins, 2 losses, and 1 draw.† His winnings added up to one guinea.† The bet was one guinea per game.
In July 1843, St Amant (+2=1-2) beat Staunton in London and won 1 guinea.
On August 1, 1843, Emil Schallopp was born.† He was a German chess player and stenographer of the Reichstag.
On August 3, 1843, Otho Michaelis was born.† †He won the Philadelphia Chess Club Championship in 1890.
On November 14, 1843, the first use of seconds was allowed for Staunton (Wilson, Evans, Worrell) and St Amant.† It was for the Staunton-St Amant match, at the Cercle des Echecs, adjoining the Cafe de la Regence in Paris.† Captain Harry Wilson, a second to Staunton, kept the time of each player for the first 15 games before he had to return to England.† Wilsonís time study showed that Saint-Amant used 3 hours to Stauntonís one hour.†† Some of the games lasted over 9 hours in one sitting.† One game lasted 14.5 hours played over two days.† John Worrel was another of Stauntonís seconds who helped him in the match.
On December 18, 1843, Oskar Cordel was born in Ascherslebben, Germany.† He was a chess aurhor.
On December 20, 1843, Howard Staunton's victory over St Amant in Paris marked the end of French supremacy in chess.† Staunton defeated St Amant, 11 wins, 6 losses, 4 draws, in the Paris match.† The last game lasted 14 hours.† The stakes were 200 British pounds (or $1,000 in todayís currency).† After the match, M. Deschapelles offered to play Staunton for 10,000 francs (400 British pounds), provided Staunton could come up with the same amount of money.† (source: London Times, Dec 23, 1843)† The excitement was so great that a ďmunicipal guardĒ had to be placed at the door of the coffee-house where the match was played.† (source: Boonís Lick Times, Feb 24, 1844)† There were no allowance to cover Stauntonís living expense for 6 weeks, and Staunton lost money on the short term.† He did gain bragging rights of being the strongest player in the world. This second match is sometimes considered an unofficial world championship match.
A painting of the match between Staunton and Saint-Amant (game 19, played on December 16, 1843) was made by Jean Henri Marlet (1771-1847).† Saint-Amant bought the painting for 500 francs.† He then handed over the painting to the engraver, Alexandre Laemlein.† The latter did not engrave from the original painting.† The engraver made a copy of the painting, but substituted several well-known characters in the chess world for some of the persons in the original.† These characters were not present at the match.† Saint-Amant thought he was dealing with the original painting and published the altered engraving in his chess magazine, Le Palamede, without mentioning the painter, Marlet, but mentioning Laemlien the engraver.†† Marlet then brought action against Le Palamede for publishing his painting with Saint-Amantís consent and asked for damages because his name was omitted.†† Marlet was awarded 200 francs in damages, and Saint-Amant was ordered to have Marletís name added to all future copies.